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Which fuel has the most energy?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Science GCSE Coursework Which fuel has the most energy? Aim: The aim of this exercise is to find out, which fuel has the most energy. The fuels that I will be testing are Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol and Pentanol. All of these fuels are alcohols. Prediction: I think that Pentanol will be the fuel that will have the most energy. I have made this prediction because I worked out the energy needed in each bond and then how much energy is needed in the balanced equations I drew up for each fuel. Here are the bond energies: C-H 413KJ/mol C-C 347KJ/mol C-O 335KJ/mol O-H 464KJ/mol O-O 498KJ/mol C-O 805KJ/mol Here are the balanced equations: Methanol: CH3O-H + O2 ----- Co2 + H2o Ethanol: C2H5O-H + O2 ----- Co2 + H2o Propanol: C3H7O-H + O2 ----- Co2 + H2o Butanol: C4H9O-H + O2 ----- Co2 + H2o Pentanol: C5H11O-H + O2 ----- Co2 + H2o Once I had the bond energies I could work out how much energy there was in each fuels structure. H Methanol: H - C - O - H = CH3 O - H H C-H: 3 413 = 1239 C-O: 1 335 = 335 O-H: 1 464 = 464 Total = 1239 + 335 + 464 = 2038KJ/mol H H Ethanol: H - C - C - O - H = C2H5O-H H H C-H: 9 413 = 3717 C-C: 3 347 = 1041 C-O: 1 335 = 335 O-H: 1 464 = 464 Total = 2065 + 347 + 335 + 464 = 3211KJ/mol ...read more.

Middle

The alcohol must be weighed accurately with scales. The alcohol has to be weighed accurately before and after each experiment. The alcohol has to be blown out immediately when the water temperature has been raised by 50�C. The thermometer must be swirled around the water before a reading can be taken. The shape of the spirit lamp must stay the same and so must the wick length. There must be a 3cm gap between the bottom of the test tube and the tip of the wick, this must be the same each time. Safety: to ensure safety we must use goggles at all times, you should also clear the desk that you are working at. You should stand up when taking part in the experiment. You should always tuck your shirt and tie in during an experiment. You should use a splint to light the wick of the fuel, which you are using. Diagrams Spirit lamp: Wick Lid Fuel Test tube: 25cm� water Stand: Boss clamp Bottom support of stand Measuring cylinder Meniscus point Results from experiment fuel Starting Temp Starting mass (g) Time (secs) End temp End mass (g) Methanol 22�C 87.88 8.37.87 72�C 82.74 Methanol 23�C 77.89 8.41.12 73�C 71.69 Methanol 20�C 71.69 9.05.94 70�C 67.21 Ethanol 21�C 81.50 5.15.30 71�C 78.87 Ethanol 21�C 61.66 4.56.78 71�C 60.00 Ethanol 19�C 60.00 4.58.53 69�C 58.74 Propanol 19�C 78.90 5.48.64 69�C 77.14 Propanol 23�C 77.14 4.56.45 73�C 76.92 Propanol 26�C 57.18 4.30.15 76�C 57.00 Butanol 23�C 75.40 5.23.92 73�C 74.40 Butanol 20�C 74.40 5.10.07 70�C 73.55 Butanol 21�C 73.55 4.57.10 ...read more.

Conclusion

The results from the, energy release graph, shows that Pentanol has the highest amount of nett energy. It also shows that Ethanol has the least amount of nett energy. Pentanol has the highest nett energy because it has the highest bonds energy out of the Four carbon atoms. Evaluation The results I got from my experiment were accurate enough to give me results so that I could rely on them. I could have got more accurate results by modifying my plan for my experiment. When I was carrying out my experiment I saw four main things that could be improved to make the results more accurate. 1. Heat which never enters the water, because of draughts, this was due to my group being next to the open window. 2. Heat loss from the top and sides of the beaker. 3. Heat which is not conducted by the beaker. 4. Distance from the end of the wick and bottom of the test tube may not have been exactly the same every time. Improvements can be made to this by insulating the sides of the beaker, using a different material for the beaker, using a lid and providing a draught screen. We could use a photometer, which reads how much light is given off. My graphs I done showed some anomalous results. The Averages of time graph, had an anomalous result, this strange result was Methanol, it was a lot more higher on the time scale than the other four carbon atoms. This would have been due to one of the four of number points above. Louie Jones Page 1 01/05/2007 Jones Page 12 01/05/2007 ...read more.

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