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WHY DO PENGUINS HUDDLE?

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Introduction

WHY DO PENGUINS HUDDLE? INTRODUCTION Penguins are birds that have, through natural selection, evolved to be perfectly adapted to their extreme environment. So, how are penguins adapted to their environment? How do they huddle? The penguins crowd around in a large circle, so everyone is packed in tightly and the surface area is reduced as shown above. The penguins on the outside of the huddle move further into the huddle every 20 minutes and the penguins in the centre move to the outside. By huddling the penguins save 0.1kg of fat per day, if they didn't huddle the population would be wiped out because the penguins wouldn't be able to breed. MY TASK My task is to model the penguins huddling behaviour in the lab and produce some evidence to suggest that huddling is effective. PLAN For my experiment I will need the following apparatus: o 250ml beaker o 7 test tubes o Paper towels o Water o Kettle o 7 thermometers o 2 elastics bands o Stop clock o ...read more.

Middle

35�C 33�C 31�C 30�C 30�C 5 46�C 45�C 40�C 38�C 37�C 34�C 35�C 34�C 32�C 32�C 31�C 6 48�C 43�C 41�C 40�C 38�C 35�C 34�C 34�C 32�C 32�C 31�C 7 47�C 33�C 40�C 39�C 37�C 35�C 34�C 32�C 31�C 31�C 30�C This is my first set of results. TIME Test tube 0 min 1 min 2 min 3 min 4 min 5 min 6 min 7 min 8 min 9 min 10 min Inside 57�C 51�C 45�C 43�C 40�C 38�C 36�C 36�C 34�C 34�C 33�C Outside average 47�C 42�C 41�C 39�C 38�C 35�C 35�C 34�C 32�C 32�C 31�C This is my averaged first set of results. This is my second set of results. TIME Test tube 0 min 1 min 2 min 3 min 4 min 5 min 6 min 7 min 8 min 9 min 10 min 1 57�C 45�C 42�C 38�C 38�C 37�C 35�C 34�C 34�C 34�C 33�C 2 43�C 40�C 37�C 37�C 37�C 35�C 34�C 34�C 33�C 32�C 32�C 3 39�C 40�C 38�C 35�C 35�C 33�C 32�C 32�C ...read more.

Conclusion

This is exactly why penguins huddle, to share their body heat. Although, the temperature in the middle test tube went down, if the penguins body temperature was constantly decrease at a rate as was in the experiment, they would die. This is why they have a layer of fat and very thick feathers. EVALUATION My results were as I expected, the temperature went down, but the inside test tube always remained the hottest. This supports my prediction and proves huddling is effective for penguins. If I were to repeat the experiment I would use more accurate equipment like an electronic thermometer and I would repeat the experiment more times and get an a more accurate average. Averaging got rid of any odd results I may have got so they didn't change my graph shape considerably. My experiment was I success, I proved that huddling is an effective way to keep warm in cold conditions. Nicky Pearson 11s ...read more.

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