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# Why Penguins Huddle.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Why Penguins Huddle I am planning an experiment to find out why penguins huddle I believe penguins huddle to keep warm using combined body heat. The heat is given to other penguins through radiation. This heat which is given out is then given back once the cold penguin is heated up this keeps them warm. To see if I am correct I will conduct an experiment. This experiment will help me find out if penguins huddle. I will need to show conduction this is when the heat energy passes through the walls of the tank by making the particles vibrate and this causes them to make the particles next to them vibrate. As the energy passes from atom to atom. As a result the heat passes through the tank and into the air surrounding the tank. This is considered the most important type of heat transfer in solids. Convection this type of heat transfer accurse in liquids and gases as the energy is carried around in atoms and molecules. This is when cooler water particles sink to the bottom and the hotter water particles rise to the top. This is a cycles and is continuous as the water keeps heating the cycle is caused by convection current as the energy moves around. Radiation this is when heat radiates from on area onto another through the movement in particles. ...read more.

Middle

Test3: In test three I will have one test simulating a single penguin a temperature will be taken every one minute. When I have this information then I will be able to compare it with test1 and test2 to see the difference the extra rings of penguins make. If the single penguins heat drops quicker than the penguins in test1 then I will know that penguins huddle to keep warm using the radiation and absorption of there own heat. I will not try to control convection as this would make it unfair. Prediction: I predict that in test1 the inner rings temperature will drop the slowest because it has six other test tubes giving it there heat through radiation. I think the outer ring will not drop as rapidly as most would imagine because all the test tubes in the outer ring are touching three other test tubes. I predict in test two that temperatures of the inner and middle ring will drop quicker than in test1 because of the cold outer ring absorbing more heat than the outer ring in test1. This is because the hot will always transfer its energy to cold through radiation. In test 3 I think the test tube will get cold slower than test 2 but faster than test1 this is because the single test tube has no strong source of heat to absorb and has no really cold place to transfer to. ...read more.

Conclusion

The temperature drop shows Evaluation: The results show that with an outer ring of heat the inner ring's temperature drops slower. I have compared my results with other groups results which have been almost Identical to mine bringing to the conclusion that the results were in all rather good. There were no strange results and they were as I had predicted. They showed a clear drop in temperature in all three tests. The test went well, but the starting temperatures of the three tests varied slightly which made it slightly unfair. If I re-did the test I would make sure I did all three tests in the morning this is because the sunlight and room temperature will affect my results. I think I have enough strong evidence to support my conclusion. My results all showed the same temperature drop, so I think that shows my results are reliable enough to support my conclusion. I think doing the tests twice will give stronger evidence if one set are not accepted. Conclusion: With the data I have found I can answer the question 'Why do penguins huddle?' I have found that the temperature drops slower when there is more heat, so if a group of penguins huddle they will stay warm longer than a single penguin. This is because of the radiation of heat between each penguin. The group of penguins stay warmer longer due to radiation between each of the penguins; the more penguins the more radiation and the longer the penguins stay warm. By Tom Jimpson 1/7 Tom Jimpson ...read more.

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