• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Examine the different solutions to the problem of road congestion.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Examine the different solutions to the problem of road congestion. Road congestion has become a major issue that countries have encountered in the last decades. Many drivers expect congestion on long journeys and even short journeys to go to work. Congestion started in the late 1950's due to the fact that real incomes and living standards improved. The advantage and privilege of having a car gave people the freedom to travel wherever and whenever they wanted. In the 1960's the car was a very good example of an income elastic good. Which means that as income increases, the sales of cars grew also at a fast rate. ...read more.

Middle

On the other hand the supply of roads has not been sufficient to meet the demand. This is the fundamental problem which leads to road congestion. Road congestion causes many problems to a society and an economy as a whole. If a person is in their car unable to move due to a traffic jam, potentially they are not working and therefore the overall productivity of the economy decreases. Apart from the more obvious reasons, there are many externalities that arise from road congestion. An externality is a cost or benefit external to an exchange. Externalities effect a third party. These externalities are not registered with the cost of production and/or consumption of a good. ...read more.

Conclusion

The greenhouse effect has heated the earths temperature and changed the climate. We are experiencing unusual climate that damages agriculture as well as homes and buildings. The diagram on the next page shows us how externalities increase the cost/price/benefit of a good. MSB (marginal social benefit) represents the demand curve. When making a car journey, the motorist only considers the marginal private cost (MPC). This is the cost which is directed only at the motorist, how ever this does not include costs imposed upon society such as noise and pollution. On his diagram I have added a MEC (Marginal environmental costs) which is the price of the externalities. Notice that this line has a positive gradient because as more of that good is produced the more the environment will be damaged Thomas Wingate Road Congestion 11/02/03 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. Is domestic violence a purely private problem or a national social problem?

    According to Dobash & Dobash, by the last half of the nineteenth century, the issue of domestic violence was being placed on the public agenda by women, such as Frances Power Cobbe and Lucy Stone, who, "raised their voices outside the institutions of the state" (1992:156).

  2. Effects of pollution on the Nigerian ecosystem

    These results have revealed that the concentrations of these pollutants are unacceptable compared to F.E.P.A.'s set limits. The tribe who occupy this region that have been most effected is the Oguni tribe. For years these people have rallied, arguing that their lives have been destroyed by the oil industry.

  1. The Cost of Freedom? Priceless.

    Truly, this shows that some people believe that accepting reparations has nothing to do with principles or dignity, they only see reparations as a way to receive money from the government to achieve financial stability. Some of what the author has stated may be true, but before consenting to handouts

  2. What are externalities?

    We assume that producers are only concerned with their own self interest. In the diagram above, the private optimum output is when where private marginal benefit = private marginal cost, giving an output of Q1. For society as a whole though the social optimum is where social marginal benefit =

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work