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'Examine the effects of industrialisation on the structure of the family'

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Introduction

'Examine the effects of industrialisation on the structure of the family' The Industrial Revolution was from 1750's - 1850's, which had four main effects. One was the Economic system becoming industrial from agriculture, the second was Mechanisation meaning production in factories becoming more efficient, the third was Urbanisation and the fourth was population explosion - low mobility rate and higher birth rate. Tallcott Parsons (1950's) believed that the extended family in pre Industrial Britain was the most beneficial as they were a unit of production and they were able to maintain a subsistence level of existence with very little reliance on non-family members. Parsons believed that post industrialisation, the nuclear family became the new dominant family structure for reasons such as geographical mobility. Parsons suggested that the extended family had disadvantages in the industrial society such as the nuclear family containing basic roles i.e. carrying out the families essential functions and the functions of the wider kinship was taken over for example by the welfare state (1948) Michael Anderson carried out a study (Preston - North West England) ...read more.

Middle

They essentially ignore middle class and concentrate on the working class families. Young and Willmott say that stage one was represented by the pre industrial family. They believe that in stage one the family work together as a team for example in agriculture. They say that this family was as a result of the industrial revolution, but it continued into the nineteenth century and is still represented in the minority of families today. Stage two of their studies researched its peak in early twentieth century. The family ceased to be a unit of production due to industrial members being employed as wage earners. In early nineteenth century working class poverty was widespread, Y&W agree with Anderson in the fact that the family responded to the high unemployment by extending its network to include relatives beyond the nuclear family. The extension of the nuclear family was built by women in defence of themselves and their children. Women formed a trade union which excluded men. Y&W claim husbands were pushed out of the female circle and took to the pub as their own defence. ...read more.

Conclusion

and submit to their control if they feel they are getting a good return on their investment of tome, energy and emotion. David cheal criticises Goode's theories as being closely related to the modernist view of progress. He particularly attacks Parsons saying faith in progress expressed by writers like parsons ignored contradictions within modernity. From a Marxist perspective the nuclear family benefited capitalism as it can be used as an ideological apparatus to promote the capitalist values rather than benefiting the whole of society, this is because consumer advertising is directed at the nuclear family nuclear for example adverts for cereals, it encourages them to pursue capitalist goals by stressing the importance of materialism. Although Radical feminists believe the nuclear family benefits the needs of men rather than all of society. This is because radicals believe that men and women are socialised into a set of ideas that largely confirms male power and superiority, it transmits patriarchal ideology encouraging the nation that the sexual division of labour is natural. It would appear that we are moving more into a nuclear family structure but it is unlikely for the movement to be as fast as Parsons suggests. ...read more.

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