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It is the aim of this piece of work to investigate the claim that a lower class person is more likely to be observed and detected than those from other classes and that a lower class person is more likely to be arrested if discovered.

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It is the aim of this piece of work to investigate the claim that a lower class person is more likely to be observed and detected than those from other classes and that a lower class person is more likely to be arrested if discovered. In order to achieve this the author has investigated the question from a variation of criminological approaches and sociological approaches. It is hoped that an answer as to whether or not such a statement can be defined as true should be uncovered by the end of the essay. There are many theories in which the author refers to, although not perhaps as many as possible, but this would have taken a lot more than 3.000 words to achieve. The author feels that the outcome of the essay was as conclusive as possible in the world of sociology and criminology does not necessarily provide definitive solutions, all theories have their flaws. In order to consider the question, we must firstly consider the meaning of crime and deviance. (McLaughlin, Muncie, 2001) defines crime as "not a self evident and unitary concept. Its constitution is diverse, historically relative and continually contested. As a result an answer to the question 'what is crime?' depends upon which of its multiple constitutive elements is emphasised. This in turn depends upon the theoretical position taken by those defining crime". It is however specific actions, which break the law and as a result are punishable by the state i.e. ...read more.


Innovators This in particular relates to lower classes who are more likely to have poor career opportunities. This may result in them attempting success via. Criminal activities or actions an example being mafia or organised crime circles. Ritualist similar to conformists only in fact that they conform but tend to forget their goals and as a result tend to get stuck in a rut of a dead end job with little or no opportunity and are generally known to be sticklers for the rules. Retreatists This type of person does not show any interest in the so called competitive outlook on life. They tend to reject the norms of society and as a result retrest from mainstream society. An example of these types would be drunks and drug addicts. Rebels Similar to the retreatists the rebels also reject the norms of society and also reject its values and the institutionalised manner in which goals are achieved. Unlike the retreatists however, they tend to make their own rules. A good example being terrorists. Whilst lower classes can react to tensions in any of the 5 mentioned ways. It is usually taken for granted that generally lower classes may rarely become the conformists of society. Structural and Subcultural theories also have a role in explaining deviance in particular relation to gangs etc (which are assumed to be prominent in lower class society). In so much as they claim lack of opportunity for success and peer group pressure can lead to conforming to gangs etc. ...read more.


This however does not display the facts as people may think, it is the result of more observation existing in such areas and as a result more criminal activity is recorded. There also appears to be a pattern emerging for crime in white collar crimes being ion the increase, which is perhaps a result of more observation of such crime. Who knows perhaps way ahead in the future, the white collar worker could be labelled or stigmatised as a deviant group. Another consideration to remember in todays society is CCTV plays an important role in observing crime, and more observation is possible as a result. Remember it is very rare for there to be CCTV cameras in more affluent areas and more commonplace in city centres and lower class areas. (Coleman, Norris, 2000) state "although it may be thought obvious that more police patrolling the streets or the presence of CCTV cameras will inevitably reduce crime, things are more complicated than that". This perhaps displays that the current government initiative will not necessarily reduce crime, just merely drive it more under ground,or yet again focus on the lower class in society. Only time will tell. As (Young, 1999. P197) states "the war against drugs has helped fill the American prisons, the vendetta against single mothers can be crippling for the most vulnerable, the fixation on dependancy cultures is not only stigmatizing but further impoverishes the unemployed". In short more focus needs to be put on solving the underlying problems which cause crime, not merely observing and dealing with it as and when it happens. ...read more.

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