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Power and Principles: The rise of industrialism and ideology

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Introduction

HL European History 2002-09-17 Power and Principles: The rise of industrialism and ideology Notes Page 2-6a The Industrialism of the West * Starting in Britain industrialism spread into Europe and north America * Germany and the US quickly became rivals to Britain but the west was the powerhouse * Steam, textiles, oil, electricity, steel and chemicals were great new innovations Britain and the Age of Steam * Though it was the age of industrialism, Britain retained its strong working middle class * flexibility of the working class allowed Britain's business to prosper * The bank of England was a solid support for industry and provided the stability that convinced many middle class Brits to invest in business. * American and British consumerism provided a large market for cheap, mass-produced goods Industrialism Spreads to Europe and the Americas * The IR quickly spread from Britain across the world, each country adapted their own version of the British model, unique to themselves. * Importing machines and skilled labours from Britain, Europe was able to skip whole stages of development * Immense capitalism was required and the government and banks funded the operations more substantially than in Britain * Railroad and trade innovations allowed for the easy transport of goods * Latin America developed much slower, initially trading raw materials for manu. ...read more.

Middle

Conflict * The heart of the middle class was the business elite * It was said that any person with nothing could soon grow it to riches in the business world * The power of the traditional upper class was marginal, the power of land turned into the power of money and families were desperate to compete with the rich businessmen * The French revolution had liberated peasants and given many of them control of land * Everywhere peasants were drawn into economics by the increased demand from the population explosion, these middle-class peasants soon adapted to the modern tech. * The emerging working class faced hard times, working 12 hour shifts in factories, at the lowest possible wages and being exposed to hazardous conditions daily. Population and Migration * from 1800 to 1900 the population more than doubled from 190 to 420 million despite the declining family size in the latter part of the century * Despite the deplorable condition of the working class the death rate declined substantially, causes include sanitation, more food, lower tariffs and better housing * Medical breakthroughs were made inclu. anaesthetics, antiseptics, infection and bacteria * 40 million Europeans emigrated to the Americas to escape the rapid pace of Europe The New Industrial City * Mass migration ensued as the industrial age produced some of the worst ...read more.

Conclusion

Democracy and Welfare * As the century advanced the liberal ideals changed to more reflect democracy * Liberals became more and more willing to use the power of the government to offer social reforms in order to win lower-class votes * Utilitarianism was popular, the institution of tools and tech to improve the quality of life * Other ideologies flooded out, including feminism and socialism Cultural and Political Nationalism * Nationalism is the sense of allegiance to ones country * The FR in 1789 turned enthusiasm for national culture into political nationalism * Leaders of France told the French people that the nation was now their country * Nationalism also sparked the separatists, as absorbed nations demanded freedom from foreign rule Chauvinism and Racism * Nationalism prospered but that soon turned the nations into competitions with each other * Racism emerged, people were classified by their colour, religion and physical features * Using their knowledge of bio. Science, racists developed physical and behavioural traits for other races * Racism tended to focus on the inferiority or the menaces of races other one's own Utopian Socialism and Marxism * Socialism was a response to the Industrial Revolution * Socialists argued that the people working in the factories should own the assets and machines rather than the rich entrepreneurs to distribute wealth * Utopian Socialism, the earliest form of socialism envisions humankind united in love and labour ...read more.

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