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This essay will demonstrate with evidence that women in the United Kingdom (UK) are not treated as full citizens. It will be shown that Citizenship is gendered as Lister and other feminist theorists have argued.

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Introduction

Demonstrate your understanding of a contemporary issue relating to citizenship. This essay will demonstrate with evidence that women in the United Kingdom (UK) are not treated as full citizens. It will be shown that Citizenship is gendered as Lister and other feminist theorists have argued. This will be supported in the essay and by the accompanying scrapbook that citizenship is gendered and women are treated in society at every level as second class citizens. T.H Marshall and his account of citizenship will be looked at and criticised that he does not take into account women. It will be shown with evidence that Citizenship in theory and practice operates as a force for inclusion and exclusion and that women have been denied their full entitlement through history. It will be demonstrated that that there needs to be a shift in the gender division at all levels, public and private spheres to create the conditions where both men and women can combine work and caring responsibilities. Women and paid employment will be investigated highlighting that women in the workforce have to juggle domestic and paid work and take on the main burden. It will also be shown that women who are living in poverty for them means social exclusion. ...read more.

Middle

Gender inequality is deep rooted which is why women are not treated as full citizens (www.worldbank.org). In 2003, the Women's Budget Group (WBG) report identified that the present Government's focus on child poverty has obscured a gendered dimension to poverty. Without recognition and analysis of the links between women's and children's poverty, the Government will struggle to meet its target to eliminate child poverty. WBG found the risk of poverty is often exacerbated for women because of deficiencies in policy, important too is the failure to implement current policy effectively, efficiently and flexibly. Women are also the head of family poverty. They try to shield their children from poverty's worst effects, which are both material and psychological. In managing poverty women carry the burden of budgeting inadequate material resources. There is a clear link between gender and poverty in the UK today, where there are high rates of poverty amongst female headed households where poverty is hidden. Women often deny themselves basics such as food to protect their families from the consequences of poverty (The Women's National Commission). Women are also more likely to be deprived than men because of resources are not allocated fairly within households (Pahl, 1989). ...read more.

Conclusion

It has highlighted that the majority of the poor are women. T.H.Marshall's essay on Citizenship and Social Class (1950) defined Citizenship as a 'status'. Women and paid employment have been investigated highlighting that women in the workforce have to juggle domestic and paid work and take on the main burden. Lister argued that poverty means exclusion from the full rights in all three spheres of citizenship. The New Earnings Survey in 1990 found that the work women do for paid employment mirrors the unpaid work domestic labour and servicing work that women do inside the home. It has been demonstrated that as well as living as a woman as a second class citizen and living in poverty limits access to resources such as jobs, education, health care, the arts and the scrapbook demonstrated examples, making it virtually impossible to overcome. Worldwide women are denied the opportunities needed to improve their social and economic condition. These dual conditions contribute to the "feminization of poverty," and show why there are growing numbers of women and single female-headed families living in poverty. The WBG report identified that the present Government's focus on child poverty has obscured a gendered dimension to poverty and that without recognition and analysis of the links between women's and children's poverty, the Government will be unable to eliminate child poverty. ...read more.

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