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To what extent do the concepts of 'inclusion' and 'exclusion' characterise the nature of social control in late modernity?Consider the concept of 'risk' in your analysis.

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Introduction

To what extent do the concepts of 'inclusion' and 'exclusion' characterise the nature of social control in late modernity? Consider the concept of 'risk' in your analysis. In this essay I will discuss the extent of the effects that inclusion and exclusion have on the characterisation of the volume of social control, and the risks involved with regards to late modernity. In order for a society to function effectively, certain norms and values need to be agreed upon by the majority. Governing bodies and influential members of a society put into place these accepted norms and values and encourage others to follow. By conforming to these norms and values, those in authority are able to control society and its development. Through providing a picture of the attributes a person must have in order to be considered a 'true' citizen (Sociology - Making sense of Society by Ian Marsh 2nd ed. 2000), social control begins to take hold of society. However, by breaking away from these agreed/accepted norms and values, an individual or group can easily be excluded from society if an individual or group of people do not fit this ideal depending upon their lifestyle, background or societal hierarchy. Social exclusion refers to "...the various ways in which people are excluded (economically, politically, socially and culturally) from the accepted norms within a society".1 In comparison, social inclusion "recognizes every individual's right to be treated equally, and to be accorded the same services and opportunities as everyone else"2, regardless of their social background, age, gender, or race. ...read more.

Middle

concerned, the concept of risk comes in to question. We can think of risk as the danger in allowing social control to exist. Someone who re-offends may have been forced to do so based on society. To look at this in a bit more detail, it is well known that anyone with a criminal record will find it harder to get a job in comparison to someone that does not. The mentality of the employer is not the same as the prison system or the law, which is that the offender has paid for their crime and is ready to go back to society. The employer sees the record as a permanent stain; so since the convicted person cannot find a job, they maybe forced to re offend to integrate back into society in order for them to survive. To summarise, social control is often seen as a large scale topic, as it practically represents any marvel leading to conformity, which in turn leads to norms; and it is these norms that control society not only socially but economically, politically, and culturally too. Other individuals see social control as a vast representation of controlled and regulated mechanisms. It is these that are placed and almost inserted upon society's members. Social control is often seen as all-encompassing, practically representing anything leading to conformity, which leads to norms. In other words, social control defines what is to be considered deviant, violations of the law, i.e. what is right or wrong and acceptable by society. ...read more.

Conclusion

teenagers. It is not just teenagers however; even the many religions are groups in themselves and have their own beliefs. Mainstream beliefs are the norms we all follow by law. They chose to follow either their own or both. There is another scenario where circumstances can allow people to ignore the controls as they believe that controls cannot be enforced. A real life example of this was the event of Hurricane Katrina which hit New Orleans in 2005. In this example, certain boundaries were removed, such as law enforcement and "individual's right to be treated equally" (as defined as part of social inclusion). This leads to individuals looting and stealing just to survive or even benefit from a 'law-less' situation. So there could be a risk that if one of these boundaries fail to work properly, it will cause a 'chaotic' society. It is clear that inclusion and exclusion have a major effect on social control and at the same time have pros and cons. From what has been discussed, it is clear that they are needed for a late modern society to exist. However a future risk is when these inclusion and exclusions defined force the people to give up rights as what they are presented is the new 'norm' (e.g. ID cards). 1 http://media.pearsoncmg.com/intl/ema/uk/0131217666/student/0131217666_glo.html#S 2 http://www.disabilityresources.org/DRMincl-terminology.html 3 http://.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_control 4 "Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behaviour, in terms of greater sanctions and rewards" see p1 ref.3 5http://www.vacilando.org/index.php?x=3072 6 http://www.ilo.org/ciaris/pages/english/frame/r2-1-1.htm ?? ?? ?? ?? Sodha, Reema Uni I.D: 03034639 Course Code: CRM020N150S Contemporary transitions in law, criminal Justice and Social Control 1 ...read more.

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