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Using examples describe a range of sociological perspectives and theories (including both classic and contemporary perspectives)

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Introduction

Unit 4: Applying Sociology Task One 1. Using examples describe a range of sociological perspectives and theories (including both classic and contemporary perspectives) Sociologists try to explain how society orders itself but there are many different theories for this, which often conflict with one another. Some of these classic theories include Marxism, Functionalism, and Interactionism. There are also more modern or contemporary theories such as Feminism. Each sociological perspective has different beliefs. Marxists are concerned with the distribution of economic power and wealth. They believe that society is in conflict between two classes. Those classes are the Bourgeoisie; who own the means of production, i.e. land and the Proletariat; who sell labour to these owners for wages. The Proletariat are being exploited in order for the Bourgeoisie to gain economic and cultural power over them; Marxists believe this leads to antagonism, arguments and conflict between the two classes. An example of this could be in a factory. The manager owns the factory, which is a means of production, so he is a Bourgeoisie whereas the factory workers are the Proletariat because they work for the manager in exchange for wages. Functionalists argue that society is organised much like the Human Body. Everything must function correctly in order for society to work as a whole, just like every organ in the body must function correctly in order for the body to work as a whole. ...read more.

Middle

Marxist Feminism argues that a capitalist system benefits from women. Feminists who agree with the tenets of Marxist and socialist feminism believe women are seen as a sex class, gendered by society into a secondary position through a systemic sex gender system that dictates social roles, purposes, and norms. These feminists believe that women are exploited as both a sex and a class, and that women are consigned to reproduction and their natures. Men take the roles of goods production and potentially reach freedom. To change this situation, Marxist and socialist feminists seek an end to gendered socialization, an alliance of oppressed groups, and a beginning of a sharing of the wealth.? Anti-Racist Sociologists believe that society is racially structured and that it works in order to protect the interests of the white majority at the cost of minority ethnic groups. They believe that society is at conflict between ethnic minorities and whites. Anti-Racist sociologists see society as black and white with White people being the oppressors and Black people being the oppressed. They see racial discrimination at many different levels; individual, institutional, and societal playing a large factor in determining the life experiences and events of a non-white individuals and groups. They believe that encouraging tolerance of different cultures cannot just solve the issue of 'race' and ethnicity because for some it is deeply ingrained in the minds, culture and institution of Whites. ...read more.

Conclusion

Because of this they are really set apart from the other sociological perspectives. So their big weakness is that none of it explains human behaviour it just thinks of solutions for the environment and tries to change human behaviour to be more environmentally friendly. 3. Explain the methods of research and social investigation that are used by sociologists in relation to the development of social behaviour. Sociologists are much like researchers because they have to research their chosen area and look into it more. The way they do this can affect the outcome so it is important to be extremely careful. Here are some popular methods: Questionnaires Questionnaires are the most common marketing research method. They are used for structured interviews, written surveys, e-mail and internet surveys. They are written lists of questions that you distribute to your users who in turn fill them out and return them. Interviews An interview is a face-to-face meeting between a researcher and subject. It enables the former to attempt an assessment of the personality, competencies, appearance and manner of the applicant and to confirm, discuss and expand upon the formal details already recorded on a questionnaire. Observations Observation means watching a particular group to see how they interact with each other and what they do on a normal basis. For example, someone may observe a classroom, an encounter between doctor and patient, or the way people use public parks. Some observers actually participate in the group which they are observing, which depending on the situation, can either enhance or hinder the study. ...read more.

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