• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Were Reform Schools an effective response to mid 19th century Juvenile crime?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Matt Eagles (322914) Were Reform Schools an effective response to mid 19th century Juvenile crime? From the onset of the Industrial revolution, Britain saw overcrowding in all of her major cities. The workforce that previously found its employment in agriculture now had to descend upon the cities in order to survive. These large numbers of people were focused in small areas around British cities, and without the readiness of employment or occupation there was a high crime rate complemented by an ever-increasing population. The rise in juvenile or youth based crime took on a massive upsurge during this period in and around the metropolis. Dickens in Oliver Twist paints a portrait of a ragged London with thieves and crime being on every corner, with little or no other option for those involved. This was the case, and posed a serious threat to those who were in positions of influence. Perhaps the major factor in the problem of delinquency was the actual role of the child at this period, there was not a clear definition between the roles of children and adults, the indicative factor was surrounding employment. The big change came from this separation of spheres from adult to child through defining what was a child. Taken for granted throughout the western world in the 21st century, are the social parameters of what a child was and how they were regarded by society, this was defined and ultimately revolutionised during the period of Enlightenment. ...read more.

Middle

That event was in1833 and perhaps acted as a precursor for the welfare of children to this day. Carpenter initiated her work with poor children in and around the slums of her native Bristol in 1846, shocked by the level of delinquency that seemed to be of high representation amongst the poor and impoverished. As Young and Ashton cite 'In this she was faced with the riotous behaviour of untamed and poverty-stricken children, yet she succeeded in holding their interest by her ability and enthusiasm'. In concentrating her efforts on the unruly and difficult members of her ragged school she found the direct correlation between poor family stability and the learning of criminal tendencies from early ages. In 1851 Carpenter published her essay on Reformatory Schools for the Perishing and Dangerous Classes and for Juvenile Offenders, just a year later she opened her own reformatory for boys in Kingswood, Carpenters schools would be structures around the family unit as this was deemed the failings of those who were suffering from delinquency. In the classic liberal state the family was key, home was to be a haven where a healthy home life breads productivity. The reformatory schools would therefore promote this ideal of family. Ultimately a simple replacement for prison the reform schools were established in rural settings away from the sinful cities with a matriarchal and patriarchal figure instilling discipline that was deemed appropriate for children as a social grouping instead of a generic punishment fitting the crime. ...read more.

Conclusion

Further more the attempts to change the working class and poor children of Britain had overlooked the foundations that had built the situation to what it was. A success would have been the sheer fact that while the occupants were in the reform schools there was a chance that the conditioning that had occurred during their lives had the opportunity to be undone, Carpenter herself had no idea of how long the process would take for absolute reform despite her conviction that it could happen. The reform schools had scored many achievements I feel that set the wheels of change for juvenile delinquency. Not so much a revolution but rather an evolution of ideals marked by key goals, the end of transportation in 1867 and the establishment of a children's court in 1905 were two, as was the 1876 Education Act that initiated Truant Schools and Industrial Day Schools. The society in what people live dictates the outcome of how they behave, for the poor and impoverished society was hard, with little or no opportunities for progress of success of any sort, therefore the people reflected this social climate through their actions. The correlation between crime and poverty is a worldwide problem that is not fully addressed by the most advanced governments around the world today. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Sociology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Sociology essays

  1. As the nineteenth century opened, life presented few opportunities for women to experience personal ...

    As one woman is reported to have said, "You can't move much on a pedestal" (Whitehorne). That is why so many women pushed for education reform. They saw education as a way for women to gain control of their lives.

  2. Is Delinquency a major factor in youth culture, what theory best explains delinquency?

    been going on for some time, and blows them all out of proportion, creating a moral panic surrounding the subject in question. However, David Matza (1964) believes that delinquency is a normal part of youthful behaviour. He believes that it does not indicate future criminal tendencies, nor does it point to the offenders as becoming 'hardened criminals' in later life.

  1. Inventing Reality: Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment

    time he has to hit the pawnbroker numerous times, since "she did not stir under his blows, as though she were made of wood" (277). Hence, Raskolnikov has not escaped the fear that created his ideas in the first place: he is scared of being impotent, of having to rely

  2. The Effects of Juvenile Delinquency on Modern Society.

    between the ages of 16 to 24 had exceeded four units of alcohol on at least one day of the week, compared to the 16% of those aged 65 to over, this was 'undeniable proof that the young man of today is becoming out of control!'

  1. Discuss the change from the "one sex" model to the "two sex" model and ...

    What was at stake in terms of sexuality was the relationship between each other within the great chain of being. In Ancient Greece and Rome sexual pleasure between males was not illegitimate in itself, but only became so in terms of their relative position within the social order of the day.

  2. 18th and 19th Century Attitudes Towards Women.

    for a young child whose mother is away at work, 'A mother who has no time to trouble herself about her child... who scarcely sees it, can be no real mother to the child...' He is not giving any information on whether working-class mothers do this, just stating the outcome of a woman ignoring her family duties.

  1. Comparison Between the set roles of Late 19th Century men in the two plays ...

    'Nora, I'd gladly work night and day for you, and endure poverty and sorrow for your sake.' This is a typical male statement of that time where women had to rely on the men in that society. When Nora confesses to taking out the loan, to save his life.

  2. Similarities between the cultures of 19th C Japan and 21st C Pakistan

    Such a situation would lead most to believe that the daughter was disrespectful or disobedient; however the only crime she had committed was to be born a girl. Speaking of women as though they are not human and have no rights of their own seemed to be completely customary in 19th century Japanese culture, as portrayed by the short story.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work