• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline the stages involved in research, development and testing of new pharmaceutical products

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Emina 1. Outline the stages involved in research, development and testing of new pharmaceutical products. Within the outline include potential costs and a general time frame for the process. AstraZeneca They have spent $12 billion for every drug they got approval for. Discovery phase -4years 1. The pharmacy will try to discover potential medicine. They will first identify the unmet medical need and the market opportunity, find a potential medicine through laboratory research, that is potent, selective and absorbed into and safe in the body. Begin the process of seeking patent protection for the potential medicine. The pharmacy will also collaborate with academia and external clinicians to access the best external science and medial opinion. ...read more.

Middle

2. Phase 2 studies- Studies in small groups of patients to evaluate effectiveness of the medicine. 3. Phase 3 studies- Studies in a larger group, looking at larger samples. They gather information about effectiveness and safety of the medicine and evaluate the overall benefit and risk of the medicine. In this phase they create branding for the new medicine. They prepare the medicine so that they can be released to patients. 4. Phase 4 ? The pharmacy will now have to submit a regulatory submission to get approval from regulatory authorities to market and sell the medicine. Post- launch and delivering to the patients ? 9years 1. Releasing it in the market, bringing awareness of the new medicine 2. ...read more.

Conclusion

unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness; 2. fever, unusual tiredness, and dark colored urine; 3. swelling, weight gain, urinating less than usual or not at all; or 4. nausea, upper stomach pain, itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes). Less major side effects 1. headache, depressed mood; 2. mild muscle pain; 3. joint pain; 4. sleep problems (insomnia), nightmares; 5. constipation; 6. mild nausea; or 7. stomach pain or indigestion. 3. How long is a patent valid on this drug or medicine (specify the country)? 4. Should economics be the deciding factor in access and distribution of drugs (are drugs like any other commodity or are they somehow different)? 5. For what purpose was the drug Thalidomide (Contergan) used? What problems arose with its use? What problems does this identify with the R & D of drugs? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Anthropology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Anthropology essays

  1. Anthropology: Study Notes (Trobrianders)

    Problems of Structural Violence * Structural violence: violence exerted by institutions, situations, and social, political, and economic spheres. Example - the economic collapse of East Asian countries in 1997, when these countries had to make drastic cuts in social services in order to survive, with a calamitous effect on the citizens (Haviland).

  2. For my research I interviewed a person from Costa Rica. I found that Costa ...

    Typical Costa Rican snacks are fried yuka or plantains. It seems they have a wide variety of options for their meal. In most traditional Costa Rican families, food is usually cooked by the women in the house, mainly the mother.

  1. Mitigating People Wildlife Conflict. Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is also fast becoming a critical ...

    An alternative approach, the "settlement of rights", appears to be a better strategy. It fixes a quota of commodities that can be exploited, it clearly demarcates reserve zones that are accessible to local villagers and it legitimises their rights to those resources.

  2. Presentation on Leslie White. In his new quest to understand why peoples behave ...

    o White references Schrodinger. o According to Schrodinger: * The withdrawal of negative entropy from its environment * negative entropy --> creation of orderliness * Schrodinger: "what an organism feeds upon is negative entropy...sucks the orderliness from its environment...after utilizing it they return it in very much degraded form..."

  1. While each Greek meal is fresh and inviting, it is also a trip back ...

    During dinner, guests should always remain standing until invited by the host to sit down because the host may have a seat assigned to the guests. Guests also should not start eating until the host starts. Elbows should never be on the table when eating.

  2. More adoption, less abortion.

    This in turn improves the child?s future. Not only will he or she be provided with a more stable life, he or she will learn how to trust his or her adoptive parents. This shows that adoption is a better option than abortion. These two choices share similarities such as ?[the mother] can pursue earlier goals, [she]

  1. Family Life in India, The Nuclear Family and the Effects of Divorce on ...

    Younger members of the household can feel their self-identity being inhibited and often struggle with a constant conflict between their conservative orientation and their exposure through their other social interactions. Joint families can also pose a larger resistance to change as the opinions on any matter are more than one.

  2. Economics - Philippines Development

    This can occur through the introduction of better technology by educated citizens, and by its employment in production; efficient machinery speeding up production. Transformed into an export-led economy, the demand for skilled labour has increased; if more students drop out, less skilled-force will be produced, affecting the economy greatly.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work