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acid base lab report

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Introduction

Abstract By using acid-base titration, we determined the suitability of phenolphthalein and methyl red as acid base indicators. We found that the equivalence point of the titration of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide was not within the ph range of phenolphthalein's color range. The titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide resulted in an equivalence point out of the range of methyl red. And the titration of ammonia with hydrochloric acid had an equivalence point that was also out of the range of phenolphthalein.. The methyl red indicator and the phenolphthalein indicator were unsuitable because their pH ranges for their color changes did not cover the equivalence points of the trials in which they were used. However, the methyl red indicator is more suitable, since it's pH range is closer to the equivalence points of the titrations. Introduction Acid-base reactions are one of the most common and important chemical interactions. They are vital to both environmental and industrial systems. As an important variable, pH controls the toxicity, mobility, solubility, and fate of many aquatic ecosystems. Most aquatic life forms cannot survive outside a pH window from about 4.5 to 9. From an industrial viewpoint, manipulation of pH is both a tool for and a prerequisite to all water treatment processes.1 Along with pH indicators, titration is a vital tool in determining the factors of many commercial and environmental systems. ...read more.

Middle

pHTitrant Volume (mL)pHTitrant Volume (mL)pH 0.001.70.003.10.0010.4 5.001.75.004.05.009.7 10.001.710.004.410.009.3 15.001.815.004.815.008.9 20.002.020.005.120.007.9* 21.002.121.005.321.006.0 22.002.122.005.421.503.8 23.002.223.005.522.003.1 24.002.224.005.722.502.9 25.002.325.006.2*23.002.7 26.002.425.506.723.502.6* 27.002.726.009.824.002.5 28.003.026.5010.524.502.4 29.003.3*27.0011.2*25.002.4 30.003.827.5011.426.002.3 30.509.428.0011.627.002.2 31.0010.3*29.0011.728.002.2 31.5010.830.0011.830.002.1 32.0011.031.0011.835.002.0 33.0011.232.0011.840.001.9 35.0011.534.0011.9 40.0011.835.0011.9 40.0012.0 Table 3: Equivalence Point values. Equivalence Point Titration of HCl with NaOH7.0 Titration of CH3COOH with NaOH8.6 Titration of NH3 with HCl 5.5 1)Initial pH See Table 2. 2)Final pH See Table 2. 3)Equivalence Range Using Graph 1: The Volume of Titrant Added in order to reach the Endpoint and the Corresponding pH Values, observe the vertical line of each titration and see the points in which the horizontal lines intersect it. These points give the Equivalence Range. See Table 2 for values. 4)Equivalence Point Using Graph 1: The Volume of Titrant Added in order to reach the Endpoint and the Corresponding pH Values a perpendicular line from the midpoint of the vertical equivalence range is drawn so that it will intersect the y-axis. The point at which it intersects the y-axis is the pH of the equivalence point. See Table 3 for values. 5)Calculation of the Mass Needed to Form 0.1 M NaOH Find Number of Moles of NaOH needed 0.1M 0.5 L = 0.05 mol NaOH Find Amount of NaOH needed in Grams 0.05 mol NaOH mol mass NaOH = grams of NaOH needed 0.05 mol (22.989770 + 15.9994 + 1.00794) ...read more.

Conclusion

Although the procedures indicate to add 5.00 mL, 1.00 mL, and 0.50 mL amounts of titrant as the equivalence point is close to being reached, 0.5 mL of titrant is too large to be added. Adding 0.5mL may "overshoot" the endpoint, making the results inaccurate. A possible solution is to use 0.10 mL increments instead of 0.50 mL. Yet, due to the limitations of human skill at adding the titrant, it may be hard to achieve smaller amounts and more accurate results. Other sources of error include human errors. For example, contamination of samples may interfere with the titration's results. A solution to this problem is taking care when adding, mixing, or cleaning. Conclusion By using acid-base titration, we found that the equivalence point of the titration of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide was determined to be at a pH of 7.0. The titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide resulted in the equivalence point of found pH 8.6. And the titration of ammonia with hydrochloric acid had an equivalence point at a pH of 5.8. The methyl red indicator and the phenolphthalein indicator were unsuitable because their pH ranges for their color changes did not cover the equivalence points of the trials in which they were used. However, the methyl red indicator is more suitable, since it's pH range is closer to the equivalence points of the titrations. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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