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Chemical Equilibrium

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Introduction

Chemical Equilibrium Application In Industry Jerry 4/26/2010 Modern Industry, bereft of all hindering technological barriers, and open to further developments in the area of economical assurance. Having once been in the cobwebbed corner of the closet, industry has now flourished into being something of the imagination. Chemically speaking, Equilibrium is perhaps one of the most important branches protruding from the hulking tree of industrial facilitation. The Haber Process, Ammonia synthesis at its best, is only a mere first of many beneficial outcomes of Chemical Equilibrium. Following Le Chatelier's Principle of Equilibrium, the Haber Process operates on the nitrogen fixation reaction of naturally occurring Nitrogen and Hydrogen gases. This particular process is of utmost importance because of the difficulty of Ammonia gas production, which of course is responsible for sustaining much of human agriculture. The world is constantly reminded by Le Chatelier's Principle, recalling the vital theory of Equilibrium: In order to maximize the amount of product in the reaction mixture, it should be carried out at low temperature and high pressure. ...read more.

Middle

2010.) N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) 2 NH3 (g) (?H = -92.4 kJ�mol-1) 'Ammonia Production Equation' Ammonia was now to be something of ease to produce, and it was rightly so, considering that hurried crop production would have been absolutely impossible, if it weren't for the extensive Haber Process. The Contact Process, the most useful and surfeit method of Sulphuric Acid production. Divided into three main stages, this process courses through: firstly, the purification of Sulphur Dioxide, secondly, the catalytic oxidation of Sulphur Dioxide, and finally, the conversion of Sulphur Trioxide into Sulphuric Acid. The purification of Sulphur Dioxide is vital to ensure the removal of catalytic activity within the gas. Then it undergoes an oxidation reaction, involving Oxygen in the following manner: 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ? 2 SO3(g) : ?H = -197 kJ mol-1 'Sulphur Trioxide Equation' After having successfully procured Sulphur Trioxide, the gas is then assaulted by a variety of temperatures and pressures (all based on Le Chatelier's Principle, of course) ...read more.

Conclusion

All of the Nitrogen Monoxide then produced must retain a cool environment for it to grant an acceptable yield of Nitrogen Dioxide. 2 NO (g) + O2 (g) � 2 NO2 (g) (?H = -114 kJ/mol) 'Nitrogen Dioxide Equation' Purification of the gases occurs and then they are left to be absorbed in water to result in a yield of 60-65% Nitric Acid. 4 NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) � 4 HNO3 (aq) 'Nitric Acid Equation' The Acid is then put to different uses such as in the manufacture of fertilizers, nitration of organic compounds, treatment of metals, and as a contributing factor in the dyeing industry. (Jones, A., M. . . Clemmet, A. . . Higton, and E. . . Golding. Access to Chemistry.) Chemical Equilibrium is certainly a theory of many advances and developments, a practical oasis of ideas for the industrial world. ...read more.

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