• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Chemical Equilibrium

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Chemical Equilibrium Application In Industry Jerry 4/26/2010 Modern Industry, bereft of all hindering technological barriers, and open to further developments in the area of economical assurance. Having once been in the cobwebbed corner of the closet, industry has now flourished into being something of the imagination. Chemically speaking, Equilibrium is perhaps one of the most important branches protruding from the hulking tree of industrial facilitation. The Haber Process, Ammonia synthesis at its best, is only a mere first of many beneficial outcomes of Chemical Equilibrium. Following Le Chatelier's Principle of Equilibrium, the Haber Process operates on the nitrogen fixation reaction of naturally occurring Nitrogen and Hydrogen gases. This particular process is of utmost importance because of the difficulty of Ammonia gas production, which of course is responsible for sustaining much of human agriculture. The world is constantly reminded by Le Chatelier's Principle, recalling the vital theory of Equilibrium: In order to maximize the amount of product in the reaction mixture, it should be carried out at low temperature and high pressure. ...read more.

Middle

2010.) N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) 2 NH3 (g) (?H = -92.4 kJ�mol-1) 'Ammonia Production Equation' Ammonia was now to be something of ease to produce, and it was rightly so, considering that hurried crop production would have been absolutely impossible, if it weren't for the extensive Haber Process. The Contact Process, the most useful and surfeit method of Sulphuric Acid production. Divided into three main stages, this process courses through: firstly, the purification of Sulphur Dioxide, secondly, the catalytic oxidation of Sulphur Dioxide, and finally, the conversion of Sulphur Trioxide into Sulphuric Acid. The purification of Sulphur Dioxide is vital to ensure the removal of catalytic activity within the gas. Then it undergoes an oxidation reaction, involving Oxygen in the following manner: 2 SO2(g) + O2(g) ? 2 SO3(g) : ?H = -197 kJ mol-1 'Sulphur Trioxide Equation' After having successfully procured Sulphur Trioxide, the gas is then assaulted by a variety of temperatures and pressures (all based on Le Chatelier's Principle, of course) ...read more.

Conclusion

All of the Nitrogen Monoxide then produced must retain a cool environment for it to grant an acceptable yield of Nitrogen Dioxide. 2 NO (g) + O2 (g) � 2 NO2 (g) (?H = -114 kJ/mol) 'Nitrogen Dioxide Equation' Purification of the gases occurs and then they are left to be absorbed in water to result in a yield of 60-65% Nitric Acid. 4 NO2 (g) + O2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) � 4 HNO3 (aq) 'Nitric Acid Equation' The Acid is then put to different uses such as in the manufacture of fertilizers, nitration of organic compounds, treatment of metals, and as a contributing factor in the dyeing industry. (Jones, A., M. . . Clemmet, A. . . Higton, and E. . . Golding. Access to Chemistry.) Chemical Equilibrium is certainly a theory of many advances and developments, a practical oasis of ideas for the industrial world. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Analysis of the Nitrogen Content of Lawn Fertiliser

    In this investigation, the percentage by mass of nitrogen from the ammonium ion in the sample fertiliser is being determined. The manufacturer's claim of the amount of nitrogen present in this type of fertiliser is 12.3%. The ammonium that is present in fertilisers is a weak acid, thus it is

  2. THE CATALYTIC DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    To explain the straight line, there would be a point where the activation energy would be overcome by a certain mass of catalyst used. Since catalyst only serve to help overcome activation energy, adding any more would result in no further change in the rate of decomposition.

  1. IB chemistry revision notes

    Then, energy is released as new bonds are made. * If energy is lost (exothermic reaction), then the products are more stable than the reactants. In endothermic reactions, the reactants are more stable then the products * Breaking bonds -->endothermic, + * Making bonds --> exothermic, - Hess' Law It

  2. Aim To investigate the chemical properties of alcohol

    This is because a very large amount of sodium will surely react vigorously with these reagents and lead to an explosion.

  1. Chemistry Equilibrium Lab

    of water in cylinder A decreased as cylinder B increases to reach equilibrium at 5mL. At equilibrium, the volumes or concentrations were the same and also the rate of transfer were also the same. In the different radius straw experiment the volume or concentration of water in cylinder A also decreases while cylinder B increased.

  2. Esterification Equilibrium

    Table 6. Processed Data - Rearrangements of Data Mixture Team 1i Team 2ii Team 3iii Team 4iv Team 5v Team 6vi 1 45.20 44.00 44.40 N/A 45.00 N/A 2 43.20 43.50 45.45 43.20 42.70 74.80 3 39.35 38.50 38.25 38.65 38.95 N/A 4 40.30 34.60 32.90 32.90 32.70 65.10 5

  1. Finding the Equilibrium Constant for the Ester Formation of Ethyl ethanoate

    This will give us the percentage error on the total moles of acid. Since we consider the HCl to be a standard solution, we also consider it has no error. Therefore the percentage error on the ethanoic acid is equal to the percentage error of the total moles of acid.

  2. The chemistry of atmospheric and water pollution.

    + O2 (g) This bromine oxide radical reacts with an oxygen free radical to form a bromine free radical and oxygen: BrO. (g) + O. (g) ï Br. (g) + O2 (g) Like the chlorine free radical produced, the bromine free radical is free to destroy thousands of ozone molecules.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work