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Chemistry Lab Report. AIM: To calculate the number of molecules of water of crystallization in hydrated copper sulphate.

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Introduction

CHEMISTRY LABORATORY REPORT. AIM: To calculate the number of molecules of water of crystallization in hydrated copper sulphate. APPARATUS: - Electronic balance (+- 0.01grams) - Spirit lamp - Bunsen burner with gas supply - Stand - Tongs - Crucible with lid. - Mass of hydrated copper sulphate. - Insulating material. FAIR TEST: This ensures that taking the following precautions minimizes the errors in the experiment. - Ensure that the electronic balance is reset before measurements are taken. - Do not fill the crucible with the sample while it is placed on the electronic balance. - Before ceasing to heat hydrated copper sulphate note that the colour has changed completely from blue to white. - While using the electric balance ensure that the substance to be weighed is placed exactly in the centre of the balance. - While removing the lid of the crucible after heating make sure that none of the water droplets on the lid trickle back into the crucible. ...read more.

Middle

- Once the crucible containing white copper sulphate has cooled retake the mass the mass of crucible containing white copper sulphate and note the difference in mass. - The loss in mass is accounted for due to loss of water of crystallization in the form of water vapour. - Then the no. Of molecules of water of crystallization can be calculated by co relating the mass with the Relative Molecular Mass. - Repeat the procedure about five times in order to get a high level of accuracy. OBSERVATIONS AND READINGS: The following observations were made during the experiment: - The colour of copper sulphate changed from blue to white. - The hydrated salt changed into a white amorphous powder due to a loss in water of crystallization. - There is consequently a loss in weight in copper sulphate. Mass of I mole of hydrated copper sulphate = 1Cu = 63.55 1S = 32.06 4O = 64 10H = 10.1 5O = 80 Therefore the RMM = 249.71 Hence no. ...read more.

Conclusion

- The mean loss in mass was calculated to 0.884 grams. - The loss in mass is accounted for by the evaporation of water vapor while heating. - This evaporated water vapor was initially stored as molecules of water of crystallization in loose chemical combination with the compound. - The reason why the hydrated salt changes to white amorphous powder is that there is loss in the water of crystallization and this property is known as efflorescence. - The results obtained are fairly accurate and precise as the value is extremely close to the literature value. (4.9 molecules as compared to 5). - The systematic error in the experiment accounts to +-1%. SUGGESTED IMPROVEMENTS: The following steps if followed can help to increase the accuracy of the experiment: - The number of trials can be increased. - The samples used must be 100% pure. - Random errors must be avoided as far as possible. - Care must be taken to ensure that the sample turns completely white on heating and no water droplets fall back into it. ...read more.

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