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# How Changing Molarities Effect Percentage Yield

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Introduction

Design Lab Report Question How will varying the molarity of excess HCl to 1.0M, 2.0M and 3.0M affect the percentage yield of CO2 in the following reaction: CaCO3+ 2HCl� CaCl2+ CO2+ H2O Materials and Apparatus 150mL of 1.0M Hydrochloric acid, 75mL of 2.0 Hydrochloric acid, 50mL of 3.0M Hydrochloric acid, Calcium carbonate, 3 250mL beakers, 1 250mL graduated cylinder, 3 stirring rods, masking tape, balance. Variables Independent: Concentrations of HCl Dependent:The percentage yield of CO2 Controlled: Mass of CaCO3, size of beakers, balance Controlling Variables Mass of CaCO3: 3.0g will be used in each trial Size of beakers: the same beaker will be used in most of the trials Balance: the same balance is used in all trials Procedure: See attached sheet. ...read more.

Middle

The theoretical yield of Carbon dioxide in the reaction is as follows: Using this value I shall calculate the percentage yield in each of the above trials. Sample Calculation: Percentage yield of Carbon dioxide Table 4: Yield and Percentage Yield of CO2 in 3.0M HCl Trials Yield of CO2 (g) Percentage Yield of CO2 1 1.46�0.01 44.2%�0.7% 2 1.57�0.01 47.6%�0.6% 3 1.56�0.01 47.3%�0.6% Table 5: Yield and Percentage Yield of CO2 in 2.0M HCl Trials Yield of CO2 (g) Percentage Yield of CO2 1 1.49�0.01 45.2%�0.7% 2 1.60�0.01 48.5%�0.6% 3 1.63�0.01 49.3%�0.6% Table 6: Yield and Percentage Yield of CO2 in 1.0M HCl Trials Yield of CO2 (g) Percentage Yield of CO2 1 1.50�0.01 45.5�0.7% 2 1.60�0.01 48.5%�0.6% 3 1.73�0.01 52.4%�0.6% Conclusion and Evaluation When examining the Percentage yield value in the 2nd rows of Tables 4-6, the values are 44.2%�0.7%, 45.2%�0.7%, and 45.5�0.7% respectively. ...read more.

Conclusion

To improve this I will calculate the percentage yield of CaCl2 instead of CO2. Other aspects to take note of in the experiment include: making sure the amount of CaCO3 is precisely 3.0g, making sure to use the same stirring rod for each beaker, and being more precise in measuring out HCl. Modified Procedure: 1. "Mark each of the 3 beakers with '2.0M', '1.0M' and '0.5M' respectively"�"Mark each of the 3 beakers with '3.0M', '2.0M' and '1.0M' respectively" 3. � "Measure out 3 beakers of 50mL of HCl, add 25mL of water into the 2.0M beaker, and 100mL of water into the 1.0M beaker to dilute the acid" 4. �"Place 3.0g of Calcium carbonate in each of the 3 beakers, agitate the mixture with a stirring rod until bubbles do not form anymore" 7. Repeat steps 1-6. ...read more.

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