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# IB Chemistry - Charles' Law Lab Report

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Introduction

Gas laws experiment Relationship between Volume and Temperature and find Absolute Zero Aim: to measure accurately the volume of a fixed mass of gas at different temperatures and use these data to determine the relationship between the variable and to determine absolute zero, the temperature at which the volume would theoretically drop to zero. Raw data 1. The volume of water in 250ml beaker = 150ml Temperature (?) �0.5? End of capillary (cm) �0.05cm Bottom of bubble (cm) �0.05cm 24 (room temperature) 6.0 2.2 82 (right after boiling water) 2.0 72 1.9 62 1.9 52 1.9 42 2.0 32 2.1 22 2.2 12 2.3 Data Processing 1. % of uncertainty on temperature = 0.5/temperature*100 = 0.5/24*100 = 2.08 = �2% 2. Absolute uncertainty on temperature = temperature*% of uncertainty on temperature = 24*2% = �0.48 3. Kelvin = ?+273 = 24+273 = 297 4. Height = End of capillary - Bottom of bubble = 6.0 - 2.2 = 3.8cm 5. % of uncertainty on height = % of uncertainty on the end of capillary + % of uncertainty on the bottom of bubble = (0.05/6.0*100) + (0.05/height*100) = 0.83+ (0.05/3.8*100) = 0.83 + 1.32 = 2.15= �2% 6. Absolute uncertainty on height = Height*% of uncertainty on height = 3.8*2% = �0.076 7. H(V)/T = k(constant) = 3.8/279 = 0.014 (Temperature should be replaced into Kelvin) ...read more.

Middle

If I want to increase the pressure which means I want molecules hit each other more frequently, then volume will decrease so that the space that atoms have will be less so molecules will hit each other more frequently. On the other hand, if the pressure decreases, volume will increase according to the Boyles' law that volume and pressure are inversely proportional. - B) Effect of changing the temperature at constant pressure: At constant pressure, the temperature will either increase or decrease. So, volume will change depends on how the temperature will change. This phenomenon was proved by Charles who said the temperature and the volume are directly related. For example, if the temperature increases, the volume will increase. If temperature decreases, the volume will decrease and vice versa. This could happen due to the speed of molecules. If temperature is high, kinetic energy will increase then the seed of molecules will increase too which means the space (volume) will be bigger due to molecules' collision. On contrast, if temperature is low, kinetic energy will decrease then the speed of molecules will decrease too which means their power of collision will slow down so volume will decrease. This is shown prominently for gas because molecules in gas are more freely moveable. Conclusion From the experiment, I was able to find out the relationship between the temperature and the height (I used height instead of using volume because these are same) ...read more.

Conclusion

I think that was because of the room temperature or the problem in cooling process. When we cool the water, we used ice for saving time otherwise it will take hours till the room temperature. Besides, we are not sure that the temperature will be constant in the room. Then the speed of cooling time will be different and there might be error in calculating the volume which is height in this experiment. There were huge uncertainties which were affected by the ruler I think. The ruler did not have more detailed scale like electronic rulers. Though we can see the gap between the smallest unit but we can write it down because we do not know exactly what it is. Improvement To improve the experiment, we may do more trials to make the experiment more accurate. Also, make it sure that our experiment will be done under the exactly same circumstance. So that there will not be any mistake in temperature and proportion with volume. Sometimes, we missed to measure the height at proper temperature so we assumed the approximate height. For the next time, make it sure that we must be always ready for taking the scale of height at right temperature. At some temperature, the bubble thingy did not move at all. For example, at 72? and 62?, there was not any difference in height. That might be because of inappropriate working problem. We have to make it sure that the equipment works properly. Besides, preparing more accurate ruler may help to reduce uncertainties. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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