• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

lab report: the hardness of water

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Hardness of water Background: water hardness results from the presence of calcium and magnesium ions in solution. Te more Ca 2+ and Mg2+ ions present, the harder the water is. Aim: to investigate the hardness of different water by using titration Hypothesis: the harder the water, the more volume of EDTA it will take to change the indicator. For this experiment, Contrex will need the largest volume of EDTA as it is a strong mineral water. Tap water will need the least volume of EDTA to change the color as it is not strong as mineral water. ...read more.

Middle

add 25cm3 of EDTA into a burette. 2. check for air bubbles and leaks 3. add 25cm3 of vittel into a conical flask 4. Add 2cm3 of pH 10 buffer solution into the conical flask. 5. Add 2 drops of Murexide indicator into the conical flask. 6. Open the tap of the burette. 7. Close the tap if the color change is observed. 8. Measure the volume of EDTA solution need ed to change the color of Murexide indicator. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because it has the hightest concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. The indicator will change color when all of the Ca+2 and Mg+2 ions have reacted. The reactions of the metal ions are: Ca+2 + EDTA-2 -----> CaEDTA Mg+2 + EDTA-2 -----> MgEDTA For vittel, less volume of 0.02mol EDTA solution is needed as it is less mineralized. Tap water needs the least volume of 0.02mol of EDTA solution because it is not highly mineralized. This is because too much calcium in water can lead to build up that clogs pipes and causes health issues so tap water is softened. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Change of Potential Difference in Voltaic Cells Lab Report

    Place the Cu electrode into the copper solution (beaker A) and the Zn electrode into the zinc solution (beaker B). 2. Use the insulated connecting wires to connect each metal electrode to on ending of the voltmeter, the negative to Zn electrode and the positive to the Cu electrode. 3.

  2. Indicator Lab Report - investigating acid-base reactions

    Methyl orange was used for weak acid + weak base experiments and strong acid + strong base experiments. The anticipated pH jump for these experiments were estimated to be between 1 and 2.5 for the strong acid + weak base experiment and 2.5 to 4.5 for weak acid +weak base experiments.

  1. Dissolved Oxygen in water

    * Strings- you may want to tie a bottle to a long stick in order to obtain the samples: this is helpful when you can't reach with your hand. * Bottles: you can use any really as long as they are very clean and dry but if you have specific water sampling bottles -that is your best option.

  2. The chemistry of atmospheric and water pollution.

    + O3 (g) ï ClO. (g) + O2 (g) Then this chlorine oxide radical reacts with an oxygen free radical (oxygen atom) to form a chlorine free radical and an oxygen molecule: ClO. (g) + O. (g) ï Cl .(g) + O2 (g) Overall reaction: O3 (g) + O. (g)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work