• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

lab report: the hardness of water

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Hardness of water Background: water hardness results from the presence of calcium and magnesium ions in solution. Te more Ca 2+ and Mg2+ ions present, the harder the water is. Aim: to investigate the hardness of different water by using titration Hypothesis: the harder the water, the more volume of EDTA it will take to change the indicator. For this experiment, Contrex will need the largest volume of EDTA as it is a strong mineral water. Tap water will need the least volume of EDTA to change the color as it is not strong as mineral water. ...read more.

Middle

add 25cm3 of EDTA into a burette. 2. check for air bubbles and leaks 3. add 25cm3 of vittel into a conical flask 4. Add 2cm3 of pH 10 buffer solution into the conical flask. 5. Add 2 drops of Murexide indicator into the conical flask. 6. Open the tap of the burette. 7. Close the tap if the color change is observed. 8. Measure the volume of EDTA solution need ed to change the color of Murexide indicator. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is because it has the hightest concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions. The indicator will change color when all of the Ca+2 and Mg+2 ions have reacted. The reactions of the metal ions are: Ca+2 + EDTA-2 -----> CaEDTA Mg+2 + EDTA-2 -----> MgEDTA For vittel, less volume of 0.02mol EDTA solution is needed as it is less mineralized. Tap water needs the least volume of 0.02mol of EDTA solution because it is not highly mineralized. This is because too much calcium in water can lead to build up that clogs pipes and causes health issues so tap water is softened. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Change of Potential Difference in Voltaic Cells Lab Report

    However, potential difference remained constant (0.83 V) for two concentrations of copper sulfate solutions (0.6 M, 0.8 M). Therefore, from the scatter graph above there is a direct relationship between the concentrations of copper sulfate solution and the potential difference. It also proves that the hypothesis stated before is correct as it clearly shows that both are directly proportional.

  2. Percentage of Water In Popcorn

    Popped Kernels, Beaker, Foil Qualitative Observations Beta 3.364g 115.053 g 118.417 g 118.050 g Burned a bit at the bottom, produces smallest popcorn Gamma 3.633 g

  1. Indicator Lab Report - investigating acid-base reactions

    Since methyl orange has a range of 3.2 to 4.4, it seemed the most appropriate indicator. Observations * Each time a drop of base was added to the strong acid + strong base and weak acid + strong experiments, there was a hint of purple which would disappear after swirling.

  2. Dissolved Oxygen in water

    However, with the raw sewage you may encounter problems because it is a deep hole and therefore you will have to throw a bucket, collect water and then fill it into your sampling bottle. 3. ATTENTION. While collecting your water samples be very careful because it is very easy to

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work