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# Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

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Introduction

Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Aim The aim of this experiment is to show that a reaction doesn't have always 100% yield by reacting NaHCO3 and HCl and determining the amount of the products to calculate actual yield. Introduction A chemical reaction will be quantitative if one of the reactants is completely consumed. In this experiment sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid start a reaction. The formula of this reaction is below. NaHCO3 + HCl --> NaCl + H2O + CO2 Observations In this experiment, sodium bicarbonate is put in an evaporating dish and some amount of HCl is added in the dish and the reaction started. ...read more.

Middle

g NaCl + H2O 63.28 - 62.14 = 1.14 g NaCl Trial # 2 65.14 - 62.14 = 3 g NaHCO3 72.95 - 62.14 = 10.81 g NaCl + H2O 63.91 - 62.14 = 2.07 g NaCl Trial # Mass of NaHCO3 (g) Mass of NaCl + H2O (g) Mass of NaCl (g) 1 2 g 10.02 g 1.14 g 2 3 g 10.81 g 1.77g Calculations Na: 14.01 g/mol, H: 1.01 g/mol, Cl: 35.45 g/mol, O: 16 g/mol, C: 12.01 g/mol NaCl= 49.46 g/mol H2O= 18.02 g/mol NaHCO3: 75.03 g/mol Mole number of NaHCO3 = mole number of NaCl Trial #1 2 / 73.03 = 0.0274 mol NaHCO3 1.14 / 49.46 = 0.0230 mol NaCl Theoretical Yield: 0.0274 mol NaCl Percent Yield: 0.0230 ...read more.

Conclusion

Evaluation When salty water is heated on the first trial, the substance started to spill around, because the substance is heated with high amount of heat and faster than it should be. As a result, some of the NaCl which stuck on the lid and spilled around was lost, so the result of the first experiment is not accurate. Other reasons that changed the results may be all NaHCO3 may not be dissolved. Too much HCl may be added on the dish. There may be still water molecules left on the salt after heating. To get more accurate results, the experiment should be done more slowly than this experiment. Especially the heating process should be done slowly, so the evaporation can be observed more carefully. Emre �obanoglu IB1 HL C 1 ...read more.

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