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Oxalic Acid Titration Lab

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Introduction

Neutralization of Oxalic Acid - Acid-Alkali Titration Aim The objective of this experiment was to determine the number of moles of water of crystallization in solid crystals of oxalic acid. Theoretical Background Neutralization is a process in which an acid reacts with a base to form a salt and water. It occurs between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution. A suitable indicator can be used which changes color at the end point of the reaction when the pH of the solution corresponds to the presence of the appropriate salt and water only [1]. Titration is a method of volumetric analysis in which a volume of one reagent (the titrant - oxalic acid in this experiment) is added to a known volume of another reagent slowly from a burette until an end point is reached. The volume added before the end point is reached is noted. If one of the solutions has a known concentration, the concentration of the other one can be calculated [2]. ...read more.

Middle

Colors of the reactants and products. COMPOUND COLOR oxalic acid solution colorless sodium hydroxide solution colorless phenolphthalein colorless phenolphthalein in the presence of oxalic acid purple solution at the end point: phenolphthalein in oxalic acid neutralized by sodium hydroxide pale purple Data Processing The neutralization occurred when hydroxide ions present in the sodium hydroxide solution titrated reacted with the hydrogen ions present in the diotic acid. The reaction can be represented by the following equation: or in simplified ionic form: (The water of crystallization did not react, despite its presence in the solution) To find the number of moles of NaOH that reacted we multiply the volume in dm3 by the concentration. From the stoichiometry of the equation it is known that to neutralize 1 molecule of diethanoic acid, 2 molecules of NaOH were required. It meant that the number of moles of acid that reacted can be calculated as half of the number of moles of NaOH that reacted. The average volume of the oxalic acid titrated from the three trials was calculated as an arithmetic mean of the volumes. ...read more.

Conclusion

The result obtained is in accordance with the published data z4sL oxalic acid is a dihydrate salt with a formula (COOH)2 � 2H20 Limitations - the end point of the reaction was only observed with a naked eye - the human reaction time when turning the tap of the burette decreased the accuracy of the volume titrated - the residues if oxalic acid on the glassware (it is only slightly soluble in water) could affect the results Errors - the errors encountered in this practical session did not affect the outcome of the experiment very seriously, they were mainly rooted in the uncertainties of the measuring devices used (e.g. balance, burette, pipette, volumetric flask) - the percentage error was 3.5% Suggestions for improvement - the end point of the reaction could have been more precisely observed using a pH meter instead of indicator - to decrease the uncertainty of the balance analytical one should be used instead of a semi-analytical one. - in the future more trials should be carried out to minimize the possibility of random errors. ...read more.

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