• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Rate of Reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Determining the Rate of Reaction When Reacting Magnesium Powder with Hydrochloric Acid Aim: To determine the rate of reaction for: Research Question: What effect does the concentration of hydrochloric acid have on the rate of reaction when combined with magnesium powder? Hypothesis I hypothesise that the volume of hydrogen gas produced will increase at a steep, but steady rate as the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases, until the concentration is equal to 1.0 mol dm-3. Therefore, the rate of reaction will remain constant until this point. I suggest this concentration because the standard concentration of hydrochloric acid used in general experiments is usually 1 mol dm-3. I then theorize that the rate of reaction will gradually decrease until the gradient of the graph ('effect of increasing concentration of HCl against the volume of hydrogen produced' - line graph 1) becomes �0. Variables: Type of Variable Variable Ensured by... Dependent Variable * Time Taken * Timed using stop clock * Volume of Hydrogen Gas Produced * Experiment repeated three time & Average taken Independent Variable (quantitative) * Concentration of HCl(aq) * 8 concentrations were used Controlled Variables * Temperature * Water bath was used * Thermometer placed in water bath * Mass of Magnesium * Used a 3 d.p. ...read more.

Middle

8. The rate of reaction was then calculated for each of the concentrations Observations: * As the magnesium powder reacted with the hydrochloric acid, fizzing on the surface was evidence of a reaction taking place. Results: Concentration (M) Volume of gas evolved after 30 seconds (cm3) Average Volume (cm3) �0.05 �0.05 �0.05 �0.05 �0.15 0.25 7.80 4.90 8.65 7.12 0.50 11.80 11.95 11.00 11.58 0.75 23.85 21.95 24.00 23.27 1.00 27.10 23.50 30.55 27.05 1.25 35.00 31.95 33.50 33.48 1.50 31.00 35.45 34.05 33.65 1.75 36.00 33.95 31.75 33.90 2.00 31.25 36.35 35.35 34.32 Calculations: BUT, calculated from line graph 1, this equation becomes: Concentration of Acid (M) Reaction Time (s) Average Volume (cm3) Rate of Reaction (cm3 s-1) �0.05 �0.50 �0.15 �0.70 0.25 30 7.12 0.24 0.50 30 11.58 0.39 0.75 30 23.27 0.78 1.00 30 27.05 0.90 1.25 30 33.48 1.12 1.50 30 33.65 1.12 1.75 30 33.90 1.13 2.00 30 34.32 1.14 Uncertainties: Instrument Error of Instrument Error Calculation Error (%) Measuring Cylinder (collator) �0.05 cm3 [(0.05 * 3) /25.55] x 100 0.59 Measuring Cylinder (HCl) �0.05 cm3 (0.05/20) x 100 0.25 3 d.p. Balance �0.001 grams (0.001/0.06) x 100 1.67 Stop clock (human error) ...read more.

Conclusion

was used for every experiment Mass of Magnesium Powder If the mass increases, it would alter the rate of reaction & would cause inaccurate results 0.06g of magnesium powder was used for every experiment Catalyst If a catalyst is added, it speeds up the rate of reaction & therefore the rate could not be calculated for just the reaction taking place between the Mg and acid No catalyst was added & all other substances, besides the ones being used, were kept away from the area being worked in Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid This was the independent variable. As the concentration increases, there is more acid with which to react, so therefore the reaction speeds up The concentrations used were 0.25M - 2.00M, with a 0.25 interval. Problem/Error Source Prevention Method Impure/partially oxidized Mg used Fine magnesium powder was used Irregular volumes recorded Experiment was repeated several times & an average was taken Problem/Error Source Improvements to be made Heat passed transfer between the solution and the surrounding air through the flask/rubber tubing Use more heat resistant materials/use insulation around the flask Irregular volumes recorded Experiment could be repeated more times & a more appropriate average taken, excluding any anomalies Impure/partially oxidized Mg used Use purer Mg powder ?? ?? ?? ?? IB Chemistry Standard Brionna Wilson 12/11/2009 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Investigate the rate of reaction of luminol in various factors. The objective was to ...

    2, Using rate-concentration graph Draw tangent for each of the concentration in the concentration-time graph, the gradient of each tangent represents the initial rate of each concentration. Plot rate- concentration graph, i.e. rate in the x-axis and concentration in the y-axis.

  2. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effect varying temperatures have on ...

    temperature condition n = number of trials Error Analysis: Calculating Moles of Mg strip: Example for all trials (since mass of magnesium strip is same for all trials) Where: n = moles of Mg(s) m = mass of Mg(s) strip MM = molar mass of Mg(s)

  1. Acids/Bases Design Lab. How does a change in the pH value of a solution ...

    (Recall: do as you otter, add acid to water!) 4. A clean, dry, 50.0cm3 graduated cylinder was filled with approximately 10.0cm3 of distilled water. The 7.0cm3 of hydrochloric acid solution in the 10.0cm3 graduated cylinder, was then added to the 50.0cm3 graduated cylinder containing approximately 10.0cm3 of distilled water. 5.

  2. Surface area vs Rate of Reaction

    not stopped for the chips after 180s as the graph still has an upward slope, suggesting that not all reactants have been use, and the setup still has more potential for more chemical reaction. Therefore, we can deduce that the reaction for the CaCO3 chips last longer than the powder.

  1. Hydrogen Gas Collection Lab CE (6/6) A sample of solid magnesium ribbon, measuring approximately ...

    After this has been done, a long, malleable wire/pipe cleaner with some bristles or other cleaning apparatus attached to the end of it, can be carefully inserted into the end of the gas measuring tube and run up to the end in an attempt to scrape out/dislodge the pockets of

  2. To determine the standard enthalpy of formation of Magnesium Oxide using Hess Law.

    However, under the material and time limitations, this was the best type of calorimeter that could be devised. An example of a more sophisticated calorimeter that could be used is a simple thermos flask which to a large extent minimizes heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation.

  1. Measuring the fatty acid percentage of the reused sunflower oil after numerous times of ...

    When the thermometer reaches 70°C, I neutralized the solution with potassium hydroxide by adding alcoholic KOH by the help of a dropper until the pink colour as a sign of neutralized solution is seen and I tried to stabilize the temperature by the help of burner.

  2. Investigating Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction of the Decomposition of Hydrogen ...

    Once the LoggerPro Program has been opened make sure that the label on the x-axis is time in seconds and that the units on the y-axis is pressure in kPa before collecting the data. Leave the test tubes in the water bath for at least two minutes so that the

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work