• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Rate of Reaction

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Determining the Rate of Reaction When Reacting Magnesium Powder with Hydrochloric Acid Aim: To determine the rate of reaction for: Research Question: What effect does the concentration of hydrochloric acid have on the rate of reaction when combined with magnesium powder? Hypothesis I hypothesise that the volume of hydrogen gas produced will increase at a steep, but steady rate as the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases, until the concentration is equal to 1.0 mol dm-3. Therefore, the rate of reaction will remain constant until this point. I suggest this concentration because the standard concentration of hydrochloric acid used in general experiments is usually 1 mol dm-3. I then theorize that the rate of reaction will gradually decrease until the gradient of the graph ('effect of increasing concentration of HCl against the volume of hydrogen produced' - line graph 1) becomes �0. Variables: Type of Variable Variable Ensured by... Dependent Variable * Time Taken * Timed using stop clock * Volume of Hydrogen Gas Produced * Experiment repeated three time & Average taken Independent Variable (quantitative) * Concentration of HCl(aq) * 8 concentrations were used Controlled Variables * Temperature * Water bath was used * Thermometer placed in water bath * Mass of Magnesium * Used a 3 d.p. ...read more.

Middle

8. The rate of reaction was then calculated for each of the concentrations Observations: * As the magnesium powder reacted with the hydrochloric acid, fizzing on the surface was evidence of a reaction taking place. Results: Concentration (M) Volume of gas evolved after 30 seconds (cm3) Average Volume (cm3) �0.05 �0.05 �0.05 �0.05 �0.15 0.25 7.80 4.90 8.65 7.12 0.50 11.80 11.95 11.00 11.58 0.75 23.85 21.95 24.00 23.27 1.00 27.10 23.50 30.55 27.05 1.25 35.00 31.95 33.50 33.48 1.50 31.00 35.45 34.05 33.65 1.75 36.00 33.95 31.75 33.90 2.00 31.25 36.35 35.35 34.32 Calculations: BUT, calculated from line graph 1, this equation becomes: Concentration of Acid (M) Reaction Time (s) Average Volume (cm3) Rate of Reaction (cm3 s-1) �0.05 �0.50 �0.15 �0.70 0.25 30 7.12 0.24 0.50 30 11.58 0.39 0.75 30 23.27 0.78 1.00 30 27.05 0.90 1.25 30 33.48 1.12 1.50 30 33.65 1.12 1.75 30 33.90 1.13 2.00 30 34.32 1.14 Uncertainties: Instrument Error of Instrument Error Calculation Error (%) Measuring Cylinder (collator) �0.05 cm3 [(0.05 * 3) /25.55] x 100 0.59 Measuring Cylinder (HCl) �0.05 cm3 (0.05/20) x 100 0.25 3 d.p. Balance �0.001 grams (0.001/0.06) x 100 1.67 Stop clock (human error) ...read more.

Conclusion

was used for every experiment Mass of Magnesium Powder If the mass increases, it would alter the rate of reaction & would cause inaccurate results 0.06g of magnesium powder was used for every experiment Catalyst If a catalyst is added, it speeds up the rate of reaction & therefore the rate could not be calculated for just the reaction taking place between the Mg and acid No catalyst was added & all other substances, besides the ones being used, were kept away from the area being worked in Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid This was the independent variable. As the concentration increases, there is more acid with which to react, so therefore the reaction speeds up The concentrations used were 0.25M - 2.00M, with a 0.25 interval. Problem/Error Source Prevention Method Impure/partially oxidized Mg used Fine magnesium powder was used Irregular volumes recorded Experiment was repeated several times & an average was taken Problem/Error Source Improvements to be made Heat passed transfer between the solution and the surrounding air through the flask/rubber tubing Use more heat resistant materials/use insulation around the flask Irregular volumes recorded Experiment could be repeated more times & a more appropriate average taken, excluding any anomalies Impure/partially oxidized Mg used Use purer Mg powder ?? ?? ?? ?? IB Chemistry Standard Brionna Wilson 12/11/2009 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Investigate the rate of reaction of luminol in various factors. The objective was to ...

    Draw a line of best fit. If the concentration-time graph gives a straight line, that reactant has zero order; if the graph gives a curve with constant half-life, that reactant has first order; if the graph gives a curve but not constant half-life, the reactant has second order.

  2. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the effect varying temperatures have on ...

    strip MM = molar mass of Mg(s) strip ERROR ANALYSIS!!!!!! Calculating Rate of Reaction: Example for target temperature condition of 10�C Where: nMg = Moles of Mg(s) T = average time for reaction to complete for 10�C target temperature condition ERROR ANALYSIS!!!!!!! Table 3: Actual Temperature of HCl, Mass of Mg, Time Taken for Reaction between Mg

  1. IB chemistry revision notes

    Gas Br2 Liquid I2 Solid o Directly proportional to the number of electrons in the species o The Halogens: as we go down Group VII the atoms have more electrons. So, they can have a greater charge imbalance and induce greater dipoles.

  2. Surface area vs Rate of Reaction

    errors, arise as the lab progress The main error in this experiment is presumably the loss of gas. This happens in multiple ways. Some gas was stuck in the rubber tube, even when the reaction is finished, and was not released.

  1. Acids/Bases Design Lab. How does a change in the pH value of a solution ...

    the concentrated hydrochloric acid is being added to, and the zinc metal strips. It is important to ensure that the zinc metal strips are exposed to the air as little as possible before it is massed on the electronic milligram balance (+/- 0.001g)

  2. Measuring the fatty acid percentage of the reused sunflower oil after numerous times of ...

    solution with alcoholic KOH which is the process adding KOH with a burette into the solution until the colour pink stays for 30 seconds. 8) I measured the volume of alcoholic KOH which I used to titrate the solution at the end of the titration which means 30 seconds stable colour of pink.

  1. To determine the standard enthalpy of formation of Magnesium Oxide using Hess Law.

    Firstly and most significantly, the calorimeter made for the purposes of this experiment was engineered rather unimpressively. Building a perfect calorimeter is practically impossible but refinements to the materials used and design could help in building a more efficient calorimeter.

  2. Investigating Factors that Affect the Rate of Reaction of the Decomposition of Hydrogen ...

    Once that is done insert 2 mL of distilled water as well into the graduated cylinder containing H2O2. Now grab the 10 mL test tube (which has been thoroughly washed with water) and insert the 4 mL of H2O2 which has been mixed with the distilled water from the 10 mL graduated cylinder into the 10 mL test tube.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work