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# Rate of Reaction

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Introduction

Determining the Rate of Reaction When Reacting Magnesium Powder with Hydrochloric Acid Aim: To determine the rate of reaction for: Research Question: What effect does the concentration of hydrochloric acid have on the rate of reaction when combined with magnesium powder? Hypothesis I hypothesise that the volume of hydrogen gas produced will increase at a steep, but steady rate as the concentration of hydrochloric acid increases, until the concentration is equal to 1.0 mol dm-3. Therefore, the rate of reaction will remain constant until this point. I suggest this concentration because the standard concentration of hydrochloric acid used in general experiments is usually 1 mol dm-3. I then theorize that the rate of reaction will gradually decrease until the gradient of the graph ('effect of increasing concentration of HCl against the volume of hydrogen produced' - line graph 1) becomes �0. Variables: Type of Variable Variable Ensured by... Dependent Variable * Time Taken * Timed using stop clock * Volume of Hydrogen Gas Produced * Experiment repeated three time & Average taken Independent Variable (quantitative) * Concentration of HCl(aq) * 8 concentrations were used Controlled Variables * Temperature * Water bath was used * Thermometer placed in water bath * Mass of Magnesium * Used a 3 d.p. ...read more.

Middle

8. The rate of reaction was then calculated for each of the concentrations Observations: * As the magnesium powder reacted with the hydrochloric acid, fizzing on the surface was evidence of a reaction taking place. Results: Concentration (M) Volume of gas evolved after 30 seconds (cm3) Average Volume (cm3) �0.05 �0.05 �0.05 �0.05 �0.15 0.25 7.80 4.90 8.65 7.12 0.50 11.80 11.95 11.00 11.58 0.75 23.85 21.95 24.00 23.27 1.00 27.10 23.50 30.55 27.05 1.25 35.00 31.95 33.50 33.48 1.50 31.00 35.45 34.05 33.65 1.75 36.00 33.95 31.75 33.90 2.00 31.25 36.35 35.35 34.32 Calculations: BUT, calculated from line graph 1, this equation becomes: Concentration of Acid (M) Reaction Time (s) Average Volume (cm3) Rate of Reaction (cm3 s-1) �0.05 �0.50 �0.15 �0.70 0.25 30 7.12 0.24 0.50 30 11.58 0.39 0.75 30 23.27 0.78 1.00 30 27.05 0.90 1.25 30 33.48 1.12 1.50 30 33.65 1.12 1.75 30 33.90 1.13 2.00 30 34.32 1.14 Uncertainties: Instrument Error of Instrument Error Calculation Error (%) Measuring Cylinder (collator) �0.05 cm3 [(0.05 * 3) /25.55] x 100 0.59 Measuring Cylinder (HCl) �0.05 cm3 (0.05/20) x 100 0.25 3 d.p. Balance �0.001 grams (0.001/0.06) x 100 1.67 Stop clock (human error) ...read more.

Conclusion

was used for every experiment Mass of Magnesium Powder If the mass increases, it would alter the rate of reaction & would cause inaccurate results 0.06g of magnesium powder was used for every experiment Catalyst If a catalyst is added, it speeds up the rate of reaction & therefore the rate could not be calculated for just the reaction taking place between the Mg and acid No catalyst was added & all other substances, besides the ones being used, were kept away from the area being worked in Concentration of Hydrochloric Acid This was the independent variable. As the concentration increases, there is more acid with which to react, so therefore the reaction speeds up The concentrations used were 0.25M - 2.00M, with a 0.25 interval. Problem/Error Source Prevention Method Impure/partially oxidized Mg used Fine magnesium powder was used Irregular volumes recorded Experiment was repeated several times & an average was taken Problem/Error Source Improvements to be made Heat passed transfer between the solution and the surrounding air through the flask/rubber tubing Use more heat resistant materials/use insulation around the flask Irregular volumes recorded Experiment could be repeated more times & a more appropriate average taken, excluding any anomalies Impure/partially oxidized Mg used Use purer Mg powder ?? ?? ?? ?? IB Chemistry Standard Brionna Wilson 12/11/2009 ...read more.

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