• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Haber process involves reacting 1 mole of nitrogen gas with 3 moles of hydrogen gas to make 2 moles of ammonia.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Haber process essay Background In a chemical change new substances are made. Chemical bonds are broken and reformed. These processes require energy. Chemical changes are usually irreversible. Some chemical changes are reversible, however. For example, in the change of hydrated copper sulphate to the anhydrous form, the water of crystallization is removed and the blue hydrated form becomes the white anhydrous form. The reaction can be reversed by adding back the water. Another reversible chemical change occurs in the Haber process. The Haber process involves reacting 1 mole of nitrogen gas with 3 moles of hydrogen gas to make 2 moles of ammonia. ...read more.

Middle

then a lower temperature should be used. Temperature in the Haber process Although the forward reaction is favoured by a lower temperature, too low a temperature means that the rate of the forward reaction is too slow. The particles have very little kinetic energy at low temperatures so do not move a great deal and collide infrequently. Hence a moderate temperature is used (about 450�C). Use of a catalyst A catalyst speeds up a reaction without altering the position of equilibrium. In the Haber process a catalyst of iron is used. The iron speeds up both forward and reverse reactions but will actually help in producing ammonia. ...read more.

Conclusion

If the pressure was higher the yield would increase but the cost of the apparatus to withstand higher pressures would be too great. In short Chemical reactions are usually irreversible because of the energy put in to make them occur: � some chemical reactions are, however, reversible � the Haber process produces ammonia and involves a reversible reaction � in the Haber process nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to form ammonia � nitrogen is obtained from liquid air and hydrogen is obtained from heating steam with methane � nitrogen and hydrogen react in the ratio 1:3 forming 2 units of ammonia � the formation of ammonia is exothermic � the Haber process uses a moderate temperature, a high pressure, and a catalyst � catalysts speed up reactions without altering the position of equilibrium. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Chemistry essays

  1. Water of crystallization of BaCl2.xH2O

    _ However, the percentage error for mass of water lost is very large. This is a result of the small mass loss of water (as seen in the formula, the value of the reading is inversely proportional to the percentage error).

  2. Analysis of the Nitrogen Content of Lawn Fertiliser

    allowing it to take with it the fertiliser remaining on the funnel, to the calibration line, stopper, and swirl the contents to dissolve the ammonium compounds in the fertilizer. 3. Using a pipette, dispense 20 cm3 aliquots of the fertilizer solution into three conical flasks.

  1. Relating Moles to Coefficients of a Chemical Equation

    Water - Tongs - Balance to 0.01 g Reagents: - Copper (II) Sulphate Crystals - Zinc Powder Method: 1. Weigh the mass of a clean, dry 150 cm3 beaker. Then weigh out 7.0 g of copper (II) sulphate using the beaker 2.

  2. Esterification Equilibrium

    Processed Data - Average Titration Value for Each Mixture Mixture Average 1 44.65ml�0.60ml 2 43.61ml�0.75mlvii 3 38.74ml�0.60ml 4 33.28ml�0.60mlviii 5 37.21ml�0.60ml 6 52.98ml�1.20mlix 7 25.40ml�0.75ml 8 37.68ml�0.60mlx 3M HCl 33.24ml�1.65ml Mixture 1; average and uncertainty calculation Average = 44.65ml Uncertainty = 0.60ml Calculations: Balanced equation for the esterification reaction is;

  1. Combustion of Propane Gas

    RT n = (101.3kPa)(5.35cm3 x 60 seconds) (8.314)(23 + 273) n = (101.3kPa)(0.32dm3) (8.314)(296k) n = 0.013 moles * The amount of heat released. (Specific Heat Capacity) o Volume of water--> 100 cm3 o Mass of water--> 100g o Density of water--> 1g/ cm3 o C= 4.18 Jg-1k-1 o ?T = 29.0 �C Q = (100g)

  2. Question: What is the relationship between pressure and temperature of a gas filled container ...

    Measure the depth with a ruler (the ruler is given as a tool for measurement). Pump 100 more heavy species in the container to make a total of 200 particles. Increase the temperature as done before with similar intervals and record the pressure in form of a table.

  1. Gas laws, investigate quantitatively the relationship between the pressure and volume for nitrogen ...

    2. The plunger was greased very lightly, and then inserted into the barrel. 3. The plunger was completely inserted, connected to the nitrogen tank and 20.0 cm3 nitrogen gas was delivered into the syringe at the external pressure of 101.7 +- 0.5 kPa.

  2. Electrolysis of copper sulphate

    The reading on the ammeter would often casually drop down to zero. Attempts were made to adjust the current back as soon as possible but often took a significant amount of time to set the current back to the required setting.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work