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The Haber process involves reacting 1 mole of nitrogen gas with 3 moles of hydrogen gas to make 2 moles of ammonia.

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Introduction

Haber process essay Background In a chemical change new substances are made. Chemical bonds are broken and reformed. These processes require energy. Chemical changes are usually irreversible. Some chemical changes are reversible, however. For example, in the change of hydrated copper sulphate to the anhydrous form, the water of crystallization is removed and the blue hydrated form becomes the white anhydrous form. The reaction can be reversed by adding back the water. Another reversible chemical change occurs in the Haber process. The Haber process involves reacting 1 mole of nitrogen gas with 3 moles of hydrogen gas to make 2 moles of ammonia. ...read more.

Middle

then a lower temperature should be used. Temperature in the Haber process Although the forward reaction is favoured by a lower temperature, too low a temperature means that the rate of the forward reaction is too slow. The particles have very little kinetic energy at low temperatures so do not move a great deal and collide infrequently. Hence a moderate temperature is used (about 450�C). Use of a catalyst A catalyst speeds up a reaction without altering the position of equilibrium. In the Haber process a catalyst of iron is used. The iron speeds up both forward and reverse reactions but will actually help in producing ammonia. ...read more.

Conclusion

If the pressure was higher the yield would increase but the cost of the apparatus to withstand higher pressures would be too great. In short Chemical reactions are usually irreversible because of the energy put in to make them occur: � some chemical reactions are, however, reversible � the Haber process produces ammonia and involves a reversible reaction � in the Haber process nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to form ammonia � nitrogen is obtained from liquid air and hydrogen is obtained from heating steam with methane � nitrogen and hydrogen react in the ratio 1:3 forming 2 units of ammonia � the formation of ammonia is exothermic � the Haber process uses a moderate temperature, a high pressure, and a catalyst � catalysts speed up reactions without altering the position of equilibrium. ...read more.

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