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Determine the presence of reducing sugar, protein and starch in the food products by using Benedict test, Biuret test and Iodine test,

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Introduction

´╗┐Chapter 1 ? Chemistry of Life Determining the Presence of Certain Nutrients Kieun Bae, DP2 - Biology HL Introduction The idea of this experiment was to plan the diet for a day and determine if the diet plan contains the necessary nutrients, by testing the food products with chemicals. In this way, we would have better idea about what kind of food product should be included in the daily diet. The meal-plan of the day we have made was following: 1. Breakfast 1. milk 2. cereal 1. Lunch 1. bread 2. juice 3. cheese 4. apple 1. Dinner 1. pasta 2. lattice 3. meat 4. tomato 5. yogurt 6. red wine 7. onion This was planned by discussing the actual food products we commonly take in a day. There are few diary products that are commonly known to contain a lot of protein, necessary carbohydrates for each meal (bread, pasta and cereal) as well as the vegetables that contain many various healthy nutrients including glucose (simple sugar), vitamins, minerals etc. Also, there is meat that is supposed to contain some fatty substances and protein. The essential nutrients that we need daily for our body to function properly are mainly six. They are water, carbohydrates (glucose, starch, sucrose etc.), proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals.[1] In the lab, we are going to find out the presence of different nutrients and decide whether the planned list of daily diet food products is good enough to provide the necessary nutrients. The chemical tests that are used for the experiments are: Benedict test, Biuret test and Iodine test, which test for glucose, protein and starch. All the tests indicate if the product contains the certain type of nutrients by the change of colors. One more testing would be HCl/Benedict test, and the purpose of this test will be explained further. Let me explain them, one by one, into details. ...read more.

Middle

However, based on what I know and I’ve learned, starch is energy stored in plants, therefore it will not make sense if there is starch present in yogurt which is a dairy product, produced by animals. Also, since the part of an apple we tested was a body of it but not a seed, apple is not supposed to contain starch. The conclusion, therefore, is that the slight difference in colors can be ignored. The reason why they show a little darker yellow color than others might be because of the initial color of the food product or, in case of yogurt, the thickness of the solution (when the substance is thick, the color appears to be matte, darker.). Another confusion that we had in this set of data is Red Wine; it shows purple color. However, since wine is not made of grape seeds but the flesh of grape, it is assumed that there is no starch present. So the purple color is just from the initial color of the wine, dark red. 1. Biuret test Biuret test determines the presence of protein by showing the color purple. The results were following: § Table 3 – Biuret test result Food product Color change Milk light blue Cereal no color change Bread no color change Cheese purple, light clear Forest fruit/strawberry juice a bit more green Apple no color change Pasta no color change Tomato no color change Onion no color change Meat (chicken) greyish blue (dark) Lettuce green Yogurt dark purple Red Wine dark blue-black The result was actually very surprising. We could not see any purple color in the test tube filled with milk! Though, other products that we assumed as protein-containing products had positive result. Dairy products are normally, commonly known to contain a lot of protein. One of the big reasons why many people tend to drink it is, actually, protein! ...read more.

Conclusion

For the next time it would be handy if we try to avoid the products with initial colors that are too strong/dark or similar to the indicating color. Characteristics of different food products were also very hard to overcome. For example, yogurt was too thick to be put into a test tube which made it impossible to put similar amount for the repeat. We tried with the pipette as well as the spoon but it did not work out well. Next time, the method of the experiment should be considered while we choose the products to be tested on. Some products that had a large size had to be ground or cut or broken, and this was also hard to do so since some or them were simply too difficult to cut or break. Chicken meat for example was so hard to cut that we gave up cutting it too small in the end. This might have affected our result because when the particle is too big, due to the surface and volume ratio, it has much less contact with the solution to react. There should be some better materials to improve this (e.g. sharper knife) or some better methods such as using a blender to make the products into smaller particles. The hypothesis was proven to be true through the result of this experiment and even though it was a lab with many lacks and inconveniences, it was very interesting and enjoyable to observe and analyze the reactions. ________________ [1] Essential Nutrients ? AB workouts - http://www.abcworkouts.com/essential-nutrients/ - 21/10/10 [2] Benedict's Test for Reducing Sugars ? Biological Sciences at Ohio University - http://www.biosci.ohiou.edu/introbioslab/Bios170/170_2/benedict.htm - 21/10/10 [3] Simple Biochemical Tests on Carbohydrates - http://www.biotopics.co.uk/as/cho.html - 21/10/10 [4] Biuret Test For Proteins ? SCUM Doctor.com - http://www.scumdoctor.com/nutrition/protein/Biuret-Test-For-Proteins.html - 21/10/10 [5] ?Iodine Test? by Rimlee Bhuyan - 7/23/2010 ? Buzzle.com Intelligent Life on the Web - http://www.buzzle.com/articles/iodine-test.html - 21/10/10 [6] Starch ? Virtual Chembook - http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/547starch.html - 21/10/10 ...read more.

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