• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

America and the First Gulf War

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

America and the First Gulf War In 1980, the war between Iraq and Iran began, and it was initially thought that Iraq's armed forces would defeat Iran quickly. Many factors led to this belief, such as the fact that Iran's military had been weakened significantly during the Iranian revolution, as well as the fact that America had erased computer data in Iran that located "spare parts" throughout the country (Dunn). Despite these factors, this seemingly simple attack would span eight years, until 1988, and would lead to the involvement of America and other western nations on the side of Iraq. These events caused Iraq much financial stress, and eventually led to their invasion of Kuwait and what would be the Persian Gulf War, otherwise known as Operation Desert Storm. Financially depleted from the eight years of war with Iran, Saddam Hussein led his forces into Kuwait in 1990 with intentions of taking control of their oil. In a short time, Saddam's forces, the Iraqi Republican Guard had made their way into Kuwait and were lined up on Kuwait's southern border, adjacent to Saudi Arabia. ...read more.

Middle

It demanded that Iraq withdraw forces immediately and Iraq and Kuwait begin peace negotiations. When ignored, a new resolution was created on November 29, 1990. Resolution 678 was adopted, giving Iraq a deadline of January 15, 1991 to comply with resolution 660. This new resolution authorized all member states to "use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660." Although the deadline was set, and the U.N. had authorized full scale invasion and attack of Iraqi forces, the U.S. still needed Congress to approve war. Many American Citizens were concerned that Iraq forces, hardened by 8 years of war with Iraq, totaled over 500,000 troops and the war may not turn out to be as simple as perceived (Marshall Cavendish Corporation 1316). Protestors made statements and carried signs such as "No blood for Oil," and in the month of January, 1991, it is estimated that 500,000 Americans were involved in protests against the war (Ells). Despite the protests, the House and the Senate approved the war, and Operation Desert Storm was initiated. In response to the public reaction to the war, the media was restricted in the information it received, and the initial activities of the war were portrayed as bloodless, and the air attacks were referred to as "surgical strikes" (Snow). ...read more.

Conclusion

At 8:01 a.m. on February 28, 2001, a cease fire was declared, and the liberation of Kuwait had been successful. The Gulf War was now over. The U.S. interest in this war, as well as the Iran-Iraq War from 1980-1988, and the current war in Iraq, have all been based on control of Oil. As noted in National Security Directives from this time period, access to oil and the security and stability of other oil rich nations in the area are considered a threat to national security. In this respect, the U.S. has always taken military action when access to oil in the Middle East has been threatened. The role of America in this war was one of leadership. Bush sent troops into Saudi Arabia immediately after Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait, and it was the U.S. who summoned over 30 other nations to send forces to build the coalition. Control of such a large proportion of the world's oil by a leader such as Saddam Hussein does seem like a threat, however, this interest has been an ongoing concern for many years, and America will continue to play a role in this issue for years to come. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. Interwar Years: 1919-39

    Japan had also won important economic concessions in Manchuria from China. * The Wall Street Crash created an unprecedented economic crisis in Japan, which had led to a dramatic change in Japanese foreign policy, and, to an increasingly authoritarian style of politics that involved the undermining of Japan's parliamentary system and the growing political influence of Japan's armed forces.

  2. World War 1 Information

    get into debt The Entry of Canada into the War > History of Canada > Most French left after the French-Indian war > Some stayed behind (in Quebec) and were abandoned by their mother country > Remain angry at the French for abandoning them > Election of 1911 > Conservatives

  1. The cold war - the conferences and the start of the cCold War

    has been the most important Western defense alliance treaty - The Warsaw Pact was established in 1955, which was really a Soviet defense system in response to NATO. In 1955, the system of military governance came to an end and the Federal Republic of Germany was allowed to become a

  2. Wars frequently begin ten years before the first shot is fired. To what extent ...

    Despite Germany's constant attempts to outdo Britain's naval power, Britain was still ahead of Germany. Britain decided to widen the gap between itself and Germany by introducing a vastly more powerful class of battleship-the HMS dreadnought in 1904.

  1. How Successful was the Dayton Peace Agreement in Bringing Sustainable Governance to Bosnia and ...

    and 18% went to Croatia Democratic Union (HDZ). Liberals won 5% and the reformed communists won less than 8% (Cohen 146). The elections of 1990 happened during the time of Yugoslavia's split. The nation was at a crisis and security to the people couldn't be provided.

  2. Notes on the History and Development of the Arab-Israeli Conflict

    To get the best deal, he began to play off West against East. These actions, as well as Nasser's communist links, persuaded the US Secretary of State, Dulles, to cancel the Aswan Dam deal. Nasser was humiliated, and responded by nationalising the Suez Canal - The retaliation, known as the

  1. Why did Tsarism fail to survive the first world war

    The outbreak of the war provided somewhat of an advantage for the Tsar. He was able to gain much popularity among the people and was a leading figure towards the fight against the invading German troops. The army was comprised of professional soldiers at the beginning of the war in

  2. The Westeinde is one of the higher parts of The Hague, and the story ...

    Her accomplices were beheaded. Law breaker or not, I think we can all feel much pity with this unhappy woman dying in such a way and far from home. lt is some consolation to know she was properly treated in prison. Her judges had ordered that she should be looked after as was seemly

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work