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How and why did Mussolini set up a dictatorial regime in 1922-1927?

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Introduction

How and why did Mussolini set up a dictatorial regime in 1922-1927? When Mussolini became Prime Minister on the 30th October, he became head of a coalition government with only four Fascists in a Cabinet of thirteen with only thirty-five Fascist MPs in the Chamber of Deputies, so they didn't have the majority of seats in the parliament, more like the minority. Thus, Mussolini was not expected to say in government long, as previous Italian government, hadn't lasted long, as on average they had only lasted for less than two years, this was a tall order, as Mussolini's coalition government, faced the same problems as those before him had failed to solve, and fascism had only won the support of seven per cent of voters, which was going to make it harder for Mussolini to stay in power. His voters were divided between moderates and radicals, so he needed to achieve a balance between the two, to keep both the radicals and moderates on his side, so to win support Mussolini has deliberately made his policies vague, as to win support from the majority, there to enable him to convince different groups he would solve their problems. The king, military, industrialists and landowners as well as many deputies saw Mussolini as a strong man, who lead them to the left, whereas his party the Fascist Party, was full of radials like the Ras for instance, how wanted to go to the right. ...read more.

Middle

However The Acerbo Law of July 1923 wanted to address this by insisting that the party with the largest number of votes (minimum. 25%) would be allocated two thirds of the seats in the Chamber, and this bill was passed. In the next election in April 1924, there was a wave of Fascist violence and the seizure of 66% of the votes by the Fascists and their allies, with fascist being allowed to vote more than once. Nevertheless, what followed was a wave of attacks by the Fascist squadristi against anyone they regarded as opponents, whether they were home or abroad. Some attacks included the forcing these opponents to drink castor oil, which was sometimes mixed with petrol. During these attacks three opposition deputies were killed and over fifty attacked. Violence like this was both to intimidate as well as disorientate political opponents. All that was carried out with Mussolini's consent and he didn't mind that the left was intimidated, further. Despite the Fascist violence helping Mussolini to crush potential opponents, it alarmed his conservative supporters, and it threatened to develop into a Fascist revolution which might grow beyond Mussolini's control. So, in January 1923, Mussolini decided to consolidate the squads into a 'Fascist Militia' that was paid by the state and answerable to him and him alone. On some level, this helped to centralise control and reduce the independence of the 'ras', on the other hand it provided a private army that was a visible sign of Fascist power. ...read more.

Conclusion

There was the starting up of censorship and the secret police called the OVRA. One way, Mussolini consolidated his power was to please both the radicals and the moderates, he allows the radicals to have their Fascists squads a victory March on Rome, he also strengthens the prefects, and replaces all top officials with Fascists as well as giving the Fascist the top jobs within the state, and establishing state control of industry. He appeased the moderates, by altering the electoral system, getting the parliament to grant emergency powers, allowing other politicians, and using the state on hostile parties, he appeases the church as well as the king, and incorporates many squads into a new state militia. All this helped him to win support, and stay in power, however he could still be dismissed by the King, which he was expecting after the Matteotti Crisis, however the king listened to the elite, who thought he was the person how could really change Italy for the best. After this, Mussolini took steps to ensure he kept his power, and took steps towards a dictatorship, this was made easier by the Aventine Succession, in which when he proposed a dictatorship, there was nobody to oppose him, as all his opponents had walked out via the Aventine Succession, who knows if his opposition hadn't walked out, whether he would of still become a dictator. However Mussolini became dictator of Italy. ?? ?? ?? ?? Jordanne Cummings Page 1 of 3 ...read more.

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