• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How and why did Mussolini set up a dictatorial regime in 1922-1927?

Extracts from this document...


How and why did Mussolini set up a dictatorial regime in 1922-1927? When Mussolini became Prime Minister on the 30th October, he became head of a coalition government with only four Fascists in a Cabinet of thirteen with only thirty-five Fascist MPs in the Chamber of Deputies, so they didn't have the majority of seats in the parliament, more like the minority. Thus, Mussolini was not expected to say in government long, as previous Italian government, hadn't lasted long, as on average they had only lasted for less than two years, this was a tall order, as Mussolini's coalition government, faced the same problems as those before him had failed to solve, and fascism had only won the support of seven per cent of voters, which was going to make it harder for Mussolini to stay in power. His voters were divided between moderates and radicals, so he needed to achieve a balance between the two, to keep both the radicals and moderates on his side, so to win support Mussolini has deliberately made his policies vague, as to win support from the majority, there to enable him to convince different groups he would solve their problems. The king, military, industrialists and landowners as well as many deputies saw Mussolini as a strong man, who lead them to the left, whereas his party the Fascist Party, was full of radials like the Ras for instance, how wanted to go to the right. ...read more.


However The Acerbo Law of July 1923 wanted to address this by insisting that the party with the largest number of votes (minimum. 25%) would be allocated two thirds of the seats in the Chamber, and this bill was passed. In the next election in April 1924, there was a wave of Fascist violence and the seizure of 66% of the votes by the Fascists and their allies, with fascist being allowed to vote more than once. Nevertheless, what followed was a wave of attacks by the Fascist squadristi against anyone they regarded as opponents, whether they were home or abroad. Some attacks included the forcing these opponents to drink castor oil, which was sometimes mixed with petrol. During these attacks three opposition deputies were killed and over fifty attacked. Violence like this was both to intimidate as well as disorientate political opponents. All that was carried out with Mussolini's consent and he didn't mind that the left was intimidated, further. Despite the Fascist violence helping Mussolini to crush potential opponents, it alarmed his conservative supporters, and it threatened to develop into a Fascist revolution which might grow beyond Mussolini's control. So, in January 1923, Mussolini decided to consolidate the squads into a 'Fascist Militia' that was paid by the state and answerable to him and him alone. On some level, this helped to centralise control and reduce the independence of the 'ras', on the other hand it provided a private army that was a visible sign of Fascist power. ...read more.


There was the starting up of censorship and the secret police called the OVRA. One way, Mussolini consolidated his power was to please both the radicals and the moderates, he allows the radicals to have their Fascists squads a victory March on Rome, he also strengthens the prefects, and replaces all top officials with Fascists as well as giving the Fascist the top jobs within the state, and establishing state control of industry. He appeased the moderates, by altering the electoral system, getting the parliament to grant emergency powers, allowing other politicians, and using the state on hostile parties, he appeases the church as well as the king, and incorporates many squads into a new state militia. All this helped him to win support, and stay in power, however he could still be dismissed by the King, which he was expecting after the Matteotti Crisis, however the king listened to the elite, who thought he was the person how could really change Italy for the best. After this, Mussolini took steps to ensure he kept his power, and took steps towards a dictatorship, this was made easier by the Aventine Succession, in which when he proposed a dictatorship, there was nobody to oppose him, as all his opponents had walked out via the Aventine Succession, who knows if his opposition hadn't walked out, whether he would of still become a dictator. However Mussolini became dictator of Italy. ?? ?? ?? ?? Jordanne Cummings Page 1 of 3 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate History section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate History essays

  1. How Successful was Mussolini in solving the problems he faced?

    the Pope criticised his race laws, and the stringing up of dead Claretta alongside dead Benito in 1945 revealed to those who had not already guessed that Il Duce was not quite the good Catholic family man that the picture postcards had portrayed.

  2. Mao Zedong: Dictatorship of a Single Party State

    free thought promoted by gov't and then is suppressed by it o CR - officially launched as campaign to rid China of "liberal bourgeoisie" elements * underlying motive - Mao's attempt to regain control of CPC after disastrous GLF * purged rival Liu Shaoqi * mass mobilization of Red Guard,

  1. To what extent was Mussolinis transition from Socialist to Fascist a result of his ...

    of a cohesive national identity.15 Italy entered the war in 1915, calling Mussolini into service; his military career was cut short, however, when he was gravely injured.16 A radical shift towards nationalism and away from the left, a product of his exposure to noted Italian nationalist, Gabriele D'Annunzio, was observable.17 Being an ex-serviceman helped endear people to his nationalist programme.

  2. Assess the methods used by Hitler to maintain his regime

    The army was strong and proud, as it consisted of several nobles of high birth who would not look up to Hitler, although they supported him. Additionally, Ernst R�hm of Hitler's SA was growing too strong, with the whole SA looking up to him.

  1. Constitution and New Government

    End to individual liberty c. Constitution lacked Bill of Rights i. Revealed their mistrust of human nature and capacity of humans to hold power ii. No gvnt cud b trustd not 2 infringe on citizen liberties & by enumeratin the natural rights of ppl wud these rights b protectd iii.

  2. When Hitler took complete power in 1933 of Germany after the Weimar period, he ...

    Ironically, Jews made up the majority of the professional occupations such as doctors and lawyers. Hitler asserted this declaration to ensure political power for Hitler's Nazis party. It was down however in a very sly and deceitful manner in that he sent assassins to the homes of those political party leaders that opposed him.

  1. How was Mussolini able to gain office by 1922

    One of the territories they didn't get was Fiume and in 1919 a Nationalist led some troupes to take over the city. He held Fiume for 15 months and became unintentionally a symbol for the Fascist party and Mussolini later took D'Annunzios beliefs and made them his own.

  2. Women and Communal Strikes in the Crisis of 1917 - 1922 & The ...

    The price of food, housing, and life commodities rose dramatically along with employment layoffs led certain officials to deem the area ripe for mass discontent. Purposely selecting International Women?s Day on February 23 to stage a strike, women rallied around the idea of upholding their role in feeding their loved ones.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work