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Interpretation of Labor, Women, and African America Progressives: How successful were they by 1920?

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Introduction

IB History of the Americas Interpretation of Labor, Women, and African America Progressives: How successful were they by 1920? Stella Gregg Word Count- 1,218 Throughout the late nineteenth century, the Progressives in the Americas worked to structurally, economically, socially, and morally reform national ideology. Many divisions of the Progressives acted in order to increase the rights of certain minority groups. Laborers, women, and African Americans assembled independently to increase their power in both the United States and Canada during the Progressive Era. The reformers were not successful in obtaining their goals by 1920. Labor reformers of the Progressive Era formed labor unions in order to come together to achieve an overall better working environment. Laborers, mostly associated with the lower working class, struggled with the jobs provided by the Industrial Revolution. Factories and mines required long working days in dangerous conditions, giving workers meager pay. Unions were a way for the workers to unite and fight for proper occupational environments. Strikes became more and more prevalent as unions spread throughout the Americas. For example, in 1919 metal and construction workers in Winnipeg requested a wage increase because of the post-World War I housing boom. The laborers called a strike because the construction and metal employers had rejected the workers' request.1 As David Bright explained, "The sheer magnitude of the event demands attention, as the strike marked the most complete withdrawal of labour that any North American city has ever seen. ...read more.

Middle

Even professions such as medicine and law were no longer all-male employment preserves. Nonetheless, career women were still the rare exceptions."5 Women were progressing into the workplace gradually proving that they were capable of doing work out side of the home. The fight for women's suffrage also ignited throughout the United States and Canada. Patricia Roome explained, "The 1890s witnessed the consolidation of the women's movement and marked the birth of national women's organizations on a grand scale."6 Though women were making great strides to attain equal rights, they were not successful in making the workplace non-discriminatory and in proving that they could contribute to the public sphere by 1920. African American Progressives struggled to overcome racism in order to win civil liberties and end segregation throughout the United States and Canada. The struggles of African American Progressives established powerful civil rights movements, but by 1920, the Americas still did not support equality between blacks and whites. Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, and Marcus Garvey led blacks to fight for civil rights with the power of unification. Booker T. Washington advocated for blacks to gain a foundation of power economically, then social and political power would follow. Washington, being a political realist, opened the Tuskegee Institute to teach blacks important trade skills in order to ensure jobs and economic stability through employment. ...read more.

Conclusion

Throughout Canada and the United States, the Progressives were not successful in obtaining their goals by 1920. Labor unions, women reformists, and African American civil rights activists had just begun the struggle to obtain their goals. However, they did set a standard for minority groups to follow in gaining and protecting civil liberties, bringing change and equality to future generations. 1 David Bright, Winnipeg Strike and the Canadian Labour Revolt, 1919 (Chinook Multimedia Inc., 2001), 3. 2 Ibid., 1. 3 Marilyn Barber, Domestic Servants: Confederation to the First World War (Chinook Multimedia Inc., 2001), 8. 4 Juliann Sivulka, From Domestic to municipal Housekeeper: The Influence of the Sanitary Reform Movement of Changing Women's Roles in America, 1860-1920 (Chinook Multimedia Inc., 2001), 2. 5 Carolyn Strange, "Girl Problem" in late-19th and early-20th Century Canada (Chinook Multimedia Inc., 2001), 1. 6 Patricia Roome, Women's Suffrage Movement in Canada (Chinook Multimedia Inc., 2001), 7. 7 James W. St.G. Walker, Racial Discrimination in Canada: The Black Experience (Ottawa: The Canadian Historical Association, Historical Booklet # 41, 1985), 16. 8 Mark Christian, "Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA): With Special Reference to the "Lost" Parade in Columbus, Ohio, September 25, 1923" The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol.28 (2004): 432. 9 Shannon Sullivan, Remembering the Gift: W.E.B. Du Bois on the Unconscious and Economic Operations of Racism, (Charles S. Piece Society, Vol. XXXIX, No.2, 2003), 211. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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