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The League of Nations was unable to enforce its policies or maintain peace because of the weak alliance between powers. The US was not part of the League, some potentially strong countries, Germany and Russia, were excluded, the existing members were weak

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Introduction

SECTION A The League of Nations was unable to enforce its policies or maintain peace because of the weak alliance between powers. The US was not part of the League, some potentially strong countries, Germany and Russia, were excluded, the existing members were weak, the fundamental problem of collective security and the ineffectiveness of decision-making. The first problem was that the US was not an member of the League. As shown by Source B, The President was idle, even though Wilson's Fourteen Points formed the basis of the league, represented by the bridge, and they also had a lot of economic and military power. Without the US, the League lacked power, prestige and legitimacy, as the original creator of it was no longer there. The US was also the keystone upon which the entire bridge rests, without the US, there is a "gap in the bridge", and the League was weak and incomplete. ...read more.

Middle

This meant that if a problem broke out, the League would not be able to go further than economic sanctions as it had no military power, weakening its power. The fourth problem as Source A identifies is that collective security is fundamentally problematic, as not all countries are equally invested. This meant decision-making was ineffective. Countries either disagreed on what "constituted aggression" or "over the appropriate sanction", but the League required unanimous agreement to pass a decision, paralyzing the league. And sanctions were ineffective because they were inevitably the "lowest common denominator", having limited effectiveness. The League's failure is apparent in the Abyssinia Crisis. Mussolini wanted to invade Abyssinia. The League talked to Mussolini, but he then sent an army to Africa. Mussolini ignored the League and invaded Abyssinia. ...read more.

Conclusion

It is also a specific argument against "collective security" rather than a general narrative of the event. The limitation of Source A is that it is written for students and is meant as an overview, and does not analyze the problem fully. The origin of Source B is that it is a cartoon drawn in 1919, drawn by a British cartoonist and published in Punch. The purpose of it was to be a political comment for the British public on the problem of US self-isolation. The value is that it reflects how people in Britain at that time considered the League to be ineffective partly due to lack of US involvement, and the US is also presented in a manner that suggests idleness, reflecting a negative view towards the US. Its limitation is a lack of concrete facts as it is only a visual representation. ...read more.

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