• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychology. Discuss two errors in attributions.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Aneesha Bhandari Psychology Discuss two errors in attributions. People do not passively observe their own actions and others, they attempt to work it out and explain it. Attribution is a concept in Social Psychology, addressing the processes by which individual explains the causes of behavior in situations. But they are two different kinds of attributes to behavior: 1. Dispositional causes: When attributing the cause of a person?s behavior to their internal characteristic we are making a dispositional attribution. The term disposition refers to somebody?s belief, personality etc. 2. Situational causes: When one attributes a person?s behavior to external factors, reinforcement, both positive or negative, in a social setting we are making a situational attribution. Attribution decisions about the individuals or another?s behavior is not always made in a logical or impartial manner, hence they may become distorted or biased. This results in Bias in attribution or ?Attribution Bias?. This happens as: 1. People are cognitive misers. Individuals do not want to out in the mental effort necessary. Thereby not examining all the attribution evidence present and coming to a quick conclusion as opposed to a right one. ...read more.

Middle

In the second test (when multiplying by 20) Student B did as well as Student A. The result was that when Student B did badly the teacher blamed it on the student?s inadequacies. However when Student B did well the teacher took the credit for it, claiming it was because of good teaching and not necessarily because of Student B?s hard work. Another instance of self-serving bias is in professional sport. In a study done by Lau and Russell (1980), coaches and professional athletes attributed 80% of their wins to internal/dispositional factors such as skill. In contrast, losses were attributed to external/ situational factors. A study done by Abramson et al. (1989), showed that depressed people attribute their success to external/situational factors and their failures to internal/dispositional factors. Miller and Ross (1975) argued that several instances of self-serving bias were rational and not for maintaining self esteem. They claimed that if trying harder did not enhance performance, then it could be concluded that there was an obstacle in the task. However if trying hard produces results then it is logical to attribute to ones self. ...read more.

Conclusion

Where as when writing about their best friends they made the same number of situational attributes as dispositional ones. For e.g. ? he majors in chemistry as he wants to make money.? The result of this experiment was that people tend to attribute their behavior to external causes, as they themselves are variables. However they attribute some else?s behavior to dispositional factors. When actors observe others behavior they lack adequate information and therefore rely more on Fundamental Attribution Error. But when observing one self-actors have more knowledge of intention, behavior and various situational factors. In a study done by Storm (1973) actors were made to see videotapes of their behavior in a particular situation. After seeing the video the actors made less situational attributions in comparison to the observers. Researchers have found that when actors know the observers well, they tend to succumb to bias less. This is, as they would know the motivation, needs and situation in the individual?s life. There fore the external factors that affect the behavior are accounted for In conclusion there are several errors in attribution including the ones mentioned above. Each of these errors are common in our daily life if not committed by us. Knowing these errors exist explains a great deal about human behavior and attribution. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate Psychology essays

  1. Explain the various approaches to psychology and the people who pioneered them

    Watson Attempted to show conditioning in human beings, in 1923 he trained a child to be terrified of furry objects by clanging a metal bar behind the child every time it held a furry toy. This would not be ethical nowadays.

  2. Psychology Internal Assessment

    Using a random sample as a modification to the experiment in the future would prevent this. Repeated measures would have proved a more effective technique than independent samples because it allows for more control over these variables. However, due to the limitation on time, repeated measures were not conducted.

  1. Social Facilitation Internal Assessment

    Descriptive Statistics: In total, out of the fifteen people studied and timed for both situations of running, thirteen people showed a better performance when running against others rather than just running on their own. This showed that 86.667% of the time, my hypothesis was correct in my study.

  2. Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour.

    and stability over time. Mischel (1968) argued that there was far less evidence for consistency in behaviour than claimed by trait theories. According to him, behaviour depends very much on the situation in which it occurs and, therefore, its causes should be sought in the (external) situation rather than (internal)

  1. The Basic Mechanisms of Homeostasis Overview of homeostasis The term homeostasis was ...

    Capitalist modernity succeeds in dominating and mystifying the individual via advertising, mass communications media and new forms of social control. This is an ´┐Żlitist viewpoint that is problematic for modern media and cultural studies. There is no faith in individual members of the proletariat to reject the ideology through independent thought processes.

  2. SL Psychology IA - Iconic Memory

    Psychological Monographs: General and Applied. Sperling G. (1963) A Model For Visual Memory Tasks. United States: Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Appendix A Queensland Academy for Science, Mathematics and Technology ABN 83103205154 Bywong Street, (P.O. Box 303), Toowong, Q. 4066 Ph: 3377 9333 Fax: 3377 9300 IB PSYCHOLOGY: EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH PARTICIPANT CONSENT FORM Participant's Name (capitals): ___________________________________ Name of Project: A replication of Sperling's (1960)

  1. EE PSYCHOLOGY

    Being a horse owner I continuously encounter animal training with my horses. Constantly attempting to modify their behavior. Therefore as I conduct this research I will apply all of the knowledge gained into the training of my horses in order to see the effects of it for myself.

  2. To what extent is positive education in classroom settings successful in enhancing students happiness?

    Furthermore it could also just be a result of the fact that there is a higher focus on student?s well-being (more attention from parents, teachers, friends) instead of the postulation that it is a product of the positive education. Much criticism of positive psychology seems to arise from the hypothesis

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work