• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In the Outsider and the Metamorphosis, the central characters are indicted by the Universal Pragmatics of society.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

In the Outsider and the Metamorphosis, the central characters are indicted by the Universal Pragmatics of society. The Universal Pragmatics are the formal and necessary conditions for an understanding through communication. 1 This is seen as the accepted means of communicating in society, in which ones demeanor is judged on their understandability. Furthermore, this understandability is deemed as intelligent and true. These ways of communication serve as a basis for what our society acclaims as acceptable. Gregor and Meursault distinctively choose an unconventional path, which stand to question the underpinnings of our humanity. In this distinctive way, they stand perpendicular to what our society has commended as the right way and choose a diverse manner of adapting to the external world. The purpose of this essay is to examine the ways that these central characters commune in their environments. In a practical sense, both central protagonists are directly inclined with the physical world, as a means of communication. Meursault, in the Outsider, reacts in a practical manner to the events in his day, rather than being effected by emotional tribulations. Emotion is something that is not ascertained, and cannot be proven in any physical manner. "I could feel my eyes getting tired watching the street like this with its mass of people and lights. ...read more.

Middle

5 He almost immediately takes a dislike for this woman, who has attached herself to a woman that she does not even know. Meursault rejects this way of expressing emotion because he sees no substantial gain. He does not understand why these people come from all over, sitting in mourn over a dead body, which is "getting on [his] nerves". Meursault also resists complying with the vices in society. At his mothers mourning, he drinks coffee. Generally, coffee allows individuals to endure times of stress, and keep them awake. However, Meursault does not abide by these terms, instead "it was nice, the coffee had warmed me up and through the open door I could smell flowers in the night air. I think I dozed off for a while." 6 He has complete disregard for what society deems as important and is solely interested in his physical matters. After the transformation, Gregor does not comply with the accepted values in society. Gregor used to enjoy foods such as bread and milk, however, he began to loathe them "and turned away from the bowl with repulsion" 7 However, he begins to develop a taste for spoiled foods, which we generally would throw away. ...read more.

Conclusion

"The only oasis of silence was just next to me where the young man and the little old lady were gazing at each other" 11 . Throughout this section, he is focused upon the communication that this couple is having, because he is feeling rather ill due to the noise around him. In his conversation with Marie, he was merely talking to keep her there longer, for he enjoyed her comfort visually. Gregor is also attracted to the sounds of music that come from his sister when she is playing the violin. This music is able to communicate to him. Through his transformation, he loses his ability to talk with his family and understand them; however, the music from the violin does not leave Gregor. Shortly after this encounter, Gregor has realized that he is unimportant to his family, and that he will not change back to be of aid. This realization drains his will and he succumbs to an injury that he received from his father throwing an apple at him. In these novels, the defiance of conforming to the Universal Pragmatics questions our liability towards this convention. In our society's perspective, we believe that a certain demeanor of communication helps to justify one's credibility. These are seen as sources of intelligence. However, these characters have risen above the ignorance in society by being different, and challenging these Universal Pragmatics. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate World Literature section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related International Baccalaureate World Literature essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    The Stark effects of being absurd in society- The Outsider

    4 star(s)

    Meursault cannot see any right or wrong with killing the Arab, the action itself was one that is revealed to be caused by the "sun" in the trial. Meursault is brought to trial; he is not tried for murder, but tried for his virtue.

  2. Examine the characterization of the central characters in The Outsider and Antigone and ...

    is, indeed, a derelict; although intelligent, he has no intellectual life, no love, no friendship, no interest in anyone or faith in anything. His life is limited to physical sensations and to cheap pleasures of modern mass culture."7 Unlike Meursault's simplistic characterization and resultant nature Antigone is complex, her actions arcane.

  1. In The Metamorphosis by Franz Kafka, Gregors perception and behaviour towards his family are ...

    This is in contrasted to Gregor's death which can be perceived as self-sacrifice: "He thought back on his family with devotion and love. His conviction that he needed to disappear was, if anything, still firmer than his sister's [...] Then his head involuntarily dropped, and his final breath passed feebly from his nostrils."

  2. World literature - the outsider

    A similar situation of nature symbolising freedom is when Meursault is imprisoned, he wants "to be able to walk down to the sea, to feel the water on [his] body and the freedom it would give [him]" (Camus 75). The actions Meursault yearns for involve natural elements and he states that the "feel [of] water on [his] body"( Camus,75)

  1. How is the symbol of food used to bring about character development in the ...

    It is the woman who supports him, in not only providing him with food, but being his support and taking care of him. A similarity in both books is that these women are the only ones who care for and nourish Gregor and Nikki to finally see the truth.

  2. The role of duties and responsibilities in 'the metamorphosis'

    However, his workaholic character and persistency in his job, endorsed his boss to be dominant towards him. Kafka, has exposed his political views, and has indirectly objected Nazism and also capitalism to some extent, by the use of diction and strong phrases such as, ?with his fist?, or ?behind his

  1. Reflection of Society in the "Grapes of Wrath"

    One major issue expressed by the final statements of The Grapes of Wrath is the moral obligation that people carry, to help the others in need. The distinctive line that can be drawn between humans and animals is the fact that we, as humans, possess the moral power to help those in need.

  2. How Is one's Perception of the Absurd developed (through the Character of Meursault) in ...

    Normally the reader identifies with a grieving protagonist, how ever Camus achieves confusion by not allowing such. This is further highlighted by a second paragraph which situated after the funeral of his mother. Here Meursault's indifference and attitude towards death is clearly perceived.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work