Describe the nature and significance of Type D (disorganised) attachment in infancy and early childhood
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Title: Describe the nature and significance of Type D (disorganised) attachment in infancy and early childhood. Type D (disorganised) is one of the attachment types, where children acting differently in "Strange Situation ". The name of the method which shows how strong is the relationship between the infant and his/her caregiver is called "Strange Situation". This method was created by Ainsworth and her colleagues, in a way to show how relaxed and good an infant feels when he is stressed and he is with his caregiver. The other three types of attachment are type A the avoidant infant's, type B-secure and type C-ambivalent infant's. These types are showing how much distress infants feel when their not with their mother or the use of their caregiver as a support to discover (cited in Understanding children's development book, Fourth edition, chapter 4, pages 94-96). However, after following the Ainsworths studies where she gained her doctorate, Mary Main had found a fourth category about infant's attachment and with Solomon (1986, 1990) named this category disorganised/disoriented babies. Mothers or caregivers with depression or caregivers who mistreat their infants will make their children's to be confused when they grow up and act strange in bizarre situations (cited in Attachment and Development book, Part I, chapter 1, page 11).
However, culture differences are playing a major role for children's attachment. Also, the way the parents are treating and growing their infants and their manner is very important role too. For example, Japanese caregivers are holding their babies all the time, they caring them whenever they go, they sleep together and have body contact. When the mother leave the baby alone in bizarre situation, feels unsafe and when the mother is back the baby takes time to calm down and feel secure. These infants are called insecure-resistant (cited in An introduction to developmental psychology book, chapter 6, page 159). Main and Hense (1990) established that there are infants who could be less disorganised in situations when the caregiver lost someone or had a shock that did not get over it. Moreover, findings from Ainsworth Bell and Stayton (1971, 1974), suggest that the caregivers who respond to their infants with love are more likely to be in the category of secure attachment. The mothers who keep away from their babies and do not give them any attention, with this behaviour lead their infants into category of insecure-avoidant attachment.
There were two groups, the first one was contained with infants who had been badly treated and the other group was consisted with infants who were not been treated with cruelty. The results showed that 82 per cent of the infants who had been badly treated were disoriented in contrast with the other group that only the 19 per cent has type D. Also the maltreated infants are more likely to be insecure and being afraid of their caregivers. To conclude, infants need love and in this crucial period there are being through they want to have a strong attachment with their mother or caregiver so they can depend on her to explore or as the place where the baby will feel safe when he is distressed. Type D is a complex type of attachment that's why this type of children acts strangely in bizarre situations. The experiences they get from their caregivers behaviour play a major role for children's attachment. The treated that the caregiver gives to her baby, if having depression, a loss of person or a shock that the caregiver had and does not get over it are some significant factors which lead to this type of attachment.
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