• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the nature and significance of Type D (disorganised) attachment in infancy and early childhood

Extracts from this document...


Title: Describe the nature and significance of Type D (disorganised) attachment in infancy and early childhood. Type D (disorganised) is one of the attachment types, where children acting differently in "Strange Situation ". The name of the method which shows how strong is the relationship between the infant and his/her caregiver is called "Strange Situation". This method was created by Ainsworth and her colleagues, in a way to show how relaxed and good an infant feels when he is stressed and he is with his caregiver. The other three types of attachment are type A the avoidant infant's, type B-secure and type C-ambivalent infant's. These types are showing how much distress infants feel when their not with their mother or the use of their caregiver as a support to discover (cited in Understanding children's development book, Fourth edition, chapter 4, pages 94-96). However, after following the Ainsworths studies where she gained her doctorate, Mary Main had found a fourth category about infant's attachment and with Solomon (1986, 1990) named this category disorganised/disoriented babies. Mothers or caregivers with depression or caregivers who mistreat their infants will make their children's to be confused when they grow up and act strange in bizarre situations (cited in Attachment and Development book, Part I, chapter 1, page 11). ...read more.


However, culture differences are playing a major role for children's attachment. Also, the way the parents are treating and growing their infants and their manner is very important role too. For example, Japanese caregivers are holding their babies all the time, they caring them whenever they go, they sleep together and have body contact. When the mother leave the baby alone in bizarre situation, feels unsafe and when the mother is back the baby takes time to calm down and feel secure. These infants are called insecure-resistant (cited in An introduction to developmental psychology book, chapter 6, page 159). Main and Hense (1990) established that there are infants who could be less disorganised in situations when the caregiver lost someone or had a shock that did not get over it. Moreover, findings from Ainsworth Bell and Stayton (1971, 1974), suggest that the caregivers who respond to their infants with love are more likely to be in the category of secure attachment. The mothers who keep away from their babies and do not give them any attention, with this behaviour lead their infants into category of insecure-avoidant attachment. ...read more.


There were two groups, the first one was contained with infants who had been badly treated and the other group was consisted with infants who were not been treated with cruelty. The results showed that 82 per cent of the infants who had been badly treated were disoriented in contrast with the other group that only the 19 per cent has type D. Also the maltreated infants are more likely to be insecure and being afraid of their caregivers. To conclude, infants need love and in this crucial period there are being through they want to have a strong attachment with their mother or caregiver so they can depend on her to explore or as the place where the baby will feel safe when he is distressed. Type D is a complex type of attachment that's why this type of children acts strangely in bizarre situations. The experiences they get from their caregivers behaviour play a major role for children's attachment. The treated that the caregiver gives to her baby, if having depression, a loss of person or a shock that the caregiver had and does not get over it are some significant factors which lead to this type of attachment. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Clinical Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Clinical Psychology essays

  1. Depression in Old Age. From an uncritical viewpoint, it would be reasonable to associate ...

    Georgotas (1983) argues that the tendency for old people to minimize their feelings of sadness reflects presumably a cohort of people brought up not to bother their doctors with emotional difficulties. Furthermore depression is often hidden behind somatic symptoms, which are more prominent and more willingly admitted (Gottfries and Karlsson,1997).

  2. Schizophrenia: Introduction and Overview

    a poor prognostic indicator, is probably more appropriately conceptualized as the early morbid manifestation of deficit symptomatology. Disturbances in social behavior have been picked up as early as infancy by workers who have noticed a lack of responsiveness and emotional expression in infants who later developed schizophrenia.

  1. A study into the causes of Dyslexia

    may lead to the other (Snowling, 1987). This is evidently an area of great interest, and research is ongoing which should be fruitful in the search for the causes of dyslexia. Whilst the main factors in the causation of dyslexia have been discussed above, it is necessary to mention some additional possibilities, even if this is merely to exclude them.

  2. The assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with sexually abusive behavior.

    sexual activities with others before 13 years of age (Araji, 1997; Friedrich et al., 1991; Johnson, 1999). The sexual life of children begins to configure shortly after birth and becomes patterned upon the bases of early sensitizing experiences. In the first year of life, most children discover the pleasure of genital self-stimulation.

  1. To what extent do researchers agree on the causes and remediation of developmental dyslexia? ...

    Although a deficit in phonological processing as a cause of developmental dyslexia has a wide consensus among researchers and remains the most consistent finding in all psychological studies of dyslexia, the basis of the deficit remains less clear. Largely attributable to an increasingly significant proportion of dyslexics presenting sensory deficits,

  2. Research and statistical significance for a pilot study on CBT for children with anxiety ...

    The Philosophical approach to researching a subject such as a psychotherapeutic intervention is usually researched using Qualitative methods as it will often take in to consideration the context of the origins of the data in a more subjective manner ie; Counselling and Psychotherapy deals with human contact, thoughts, feelings of differing circumstances.

  1. Counselling Theory - Good Practise and Ethics

    To have an awareness of their limitations when it comes to the number of clients that they are able to see whilst still being able to look after themselves is essential to the wellbeing of both counsellor and client. To know when it is appropriate to refer a client to

  2. POSSIBLE CAUSES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA: NATURE VS NURTURE. The causes of schizophrenia have been ...

    However, these views are not always the case. In fact, schizophrenia is more prevalent among the lower socioeconomic classes and more common in lower class regions of many cities of the industrial world (Faris et al., cited in Warner, 1995).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work