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University Degree: Clinical Psychology

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  1. Reflection on Person Centered Care.

    Person centred therapy is a collaborative relationship where participants are equals, and it is client directed. The techniques used in person centred therapy require the therapist to create an environment that facilitates a relationship. The therapeutic client therapist relationship needs to include? six core conditions which are necessary and sufficient for personality changes to occur? (Grant) if therapy is to be successful. ?Six core conditions (necessary and sufficient for personality changes to occur). For therapy to occur it is necessary that these conditions exist.

    • Word count: 2064
  2. I will discuss the article The Evolution of Alter Personality States in Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) (Pica, 1999).

    The concept then swept across Europe during the late 19th century, only used for the rise of behaviorism and the emergence of schizophrenia. As a result, only a few cases had been recorded in the literature during the mid of 20th century (Ross, 1989). Dissociative Identity Disorder was not referred to as Multiple personality Disorder until two cases ?Eve? and ?Sybil? were spread, and then have come into public notice. According to these two cases, the professionals started psychophysiological research and committed to the recognition of MPD, along with the increasing number of cases have confirmed and reported in the literature during the decades, the disorder is eventually defined as DID (Ross, 1991).

    • Word count: 1342
  3. Compare and contrast how the psychodynamic and person-centred approaches to counselling understand the person

    This transference allows the counsellor to help the patient/client to gain insight into any current problems in their relationships with people that they may not be aware of. The ?object relations school? was actively pioneered around the 1940?s and 1950?s. Melanie Klein was most commonly identified with ?object relations? theory. She argued that in early childhood the mother/main caregiver was the principle object (the mother was an extension to the breast). The breast being significant, as it either gratifies when milk is produced making the baby feel loved and accepted or causes hostility and anger if the milk is not produced.

    • Word count: 1630
  4. Why is the initial consultation so important? What factors will an ethical hypnotherapist cover at this time

    First impressions create lasting impressions so imperative that the therapist creates an image of professionalism but also approachability. When a client first books an appointment often they will not know what to expect, what they hope is an understanding therapist who is well educated in their field who can help them with their problems. These impressions will begin at the door, clothing is vital, smart casual will put the client at ease without the austerity of business attire whilst maintaining a professional appearance. The hypnotherapist should be welcoming and positive and speak in a calm clear voice and even tone, this will relax the client and thus the hypnotic induction begins.

    • Word count: 2005
  5. What can Psychology tell us about the effectiveness and popularity of Aromatherapy in the treatment and management of behavioural problems associated with Dementia sufferers?

    The Committee on Safety of Medicines (2004) issued a report warning practitioners of the dangers affiliated with the use of such treatment. The conclusions here were based on both the identified side effects and the plethora of research, which failed to antithesize the efficacy of such treatment from placebo. Unsurprisingly, the popularity of antipsychotic treatments has declined and have almost simultaneously resulted in an increase in the popularity of complementary and alternative medicine; most particularly to dementia, Aromatherapy (Ernst, 2001).

    • Word count: 1872
  6. Counselling Theory - Good Practise and Ethics

    Explain their own philosophical approach to Counselling I view the human condition as being essentially good. I believe that inside us all at the very essence of our being lies who we really are, our own personal rightness, the answers to all of life?s questions and the ability to overcome great distress. To move on, learn and constantly grow. I also believe that what we all really need to feel happy and fulfilled is to be loved and accepted for being that person. When that love and acceptance is not given in our interactions with others we learn other ways of being that are not congruent with our own personal beliefs and feelings and act out different personas in order to gain acceptance and love from others.

    • Word count: 5727
  7. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Throughout the years many assessments and tests have been developed to help psychologists diagnose disorders in individuals

    (Austin, 1994). The MMPI was developed with collaboration from both psychologists and psychiatrists working together to get the same outcome, a better way to help diagnose individuals with a mental illness. Before the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was developed, personality assessment techniques were used to help the emerging diagnostic needs of psychologists working under psychiatrists. It was difficult to develop a test that would be broadly accepted in clinical practice. The purpose of the MMPI was to represent general psychiatric terms.

    • Word count: 792
  8. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Critically examine the philosophy and application for one chosen counselling or psychotherapy theory.

    Cognitive behavioural therapy combines basic theories about how people learn (behaviourism) with theories about the way people think about and interpret events in their lives (cognition), both with its own theoretical assumptions and findings (Kalodner, CR 2011: 193-213). When Beck was working with depressed patients he noticed that they experienced a series of spontaneous negative thoughts, which he called automatic thoughts. He divided them into three categories: negative thoughts relating to the world, to the self and to the future. Working to identify and challenge these thoughts helped enable patients to evaluate their problems more effectively.

    • Word count: 3063
  9. The focus of this paper is on the meaning in life and the importance of sociality and perceived purpose in life and events

    The focus of this paper is on the meaning in life and the importance of sociality and perceived purpose in life and events, exposure and experiences that can heighten the sense of meaning in one?s life. The paper also reflects on the notion that meaning in life is different at different developmental stages in the life of the same individual. Many researchers have taken to exploring this particular area to understand what exactly creates meaning in life. Stillman & Baumeister (2009)

    • Word count: 1862
  10. Describe and evaluate Carl Jungs theory concerning personality types and show how they might usefully help a therapist to determine therapeutic goals

    Throughout his life he had a deep interest in nature and spiritual matters and both influenced his work. Jung studied medicine but was drawn to psychiatry. He worked with psychotic patients and from this came to understand that symptoms often had a relationship to a patients past. Jung suffered a long period of depression in the middle of his life and withdrew from the world, his family, his professional life and spent time considering meaning in his troubled dreams and feeling.

    • Word count: 2565
  11. Write an essay describing the key concepts and the principles of the person centred approach and your understanding of how these principles are applied to the counselling setting.

    Rogers states, that at first the client may be in a "state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious" (Rogers 1959 :213) Thus, by the counsellor being congruent towards the client, the client may respond to being congruent back to the counsellor. By the counsellor's congruent and genuine behalf, they are then providing conditions for the clients growth. The likelihood of the clients enhancement of personal growth increases, as the client realizes not to look for answers or suggestions from the counsellor, but from themselves. Congruence is important for the therapeutic relationship as it strips away the 'mystery' of the counsellor.

    • Word count: 2432
  12. Discuss the biological effects of acute psychological stress and some possible health outcomes of these stages

    Acute stress is when you go through a phase that only lasts for a little while and the cure for it would be quicker to cure. It is very important for you to know how to recognize the signs on stress because the quicker it is going to be cured the better. Stress can creep on you at any time; this is the most dangerous thing about it. If you don?t take care of it once you find out the diagnosis then it will feel normal to you, you will get too used to it and want it in your everyday.

    • Word count: 1129

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