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Special needs

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Special Needs in the Classroom - An Overview In this module, we will be looking at the factors that surround the inclusion of Special Needs in the classroom. 1A: Meaningful participation in the least restrictive environment The Least Restrictive Environment is described by Mills (1998) in the Least Restrictive Environment Implementation Policy Paper as: 'Least restrictive environment means that placement of students with disabilities in special classes, separate schools and other removal from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability is such that, even with the use of supplementary aids and services, education cannot be satisfactorily achieved. The placement of an individual student with a disability in the least restrictive environment shall: 0. provide the special education needed by the student; 0. provide for education of the student to the maximum extent appropriate to the needs of the student with other students who do not have disabilities; and 0. be as close as possible to the student's home.' This is to say that every available provision should be made to educate the child as usual, taking into account their individual disability as well as seeking to allow the child to join in as much mainstream activity as possible. If there are certain factors that occur in the school environment that work against a child's best interest, then steps are taken to remove or overcome these factors. 'School environment' refers to the collective excperience of school for a child, its machinations, its social aspects and its wide range of rules. The most common factor in the school environment which would work against children with special educational needs (SEN) would be the social side of school. Marx & Wooley (1999) describe the school environment as follows: "A school's environment is the thread that connects the multitude of activities on a campus. In many respects this thread is almost invisible, yet everyone experiences its influence. ...read more.

Middle

Since then the program has had two other segments covering the next two expansions: EX Emerald and EX Unseen Forces." Master M and I have already looked at viruses and DNA based on this eclectic character and it seems that NASA have begun similar initiatives. Masih also has a very adult understanding of certain concepts and is noted for saying things like 'Oh my good god' or 'Damn it!' when minor things go wrong. In this respect, his character is almost totally unique. The barriers to his learning would be his attention abilities and word recognition. His adult attitude carries him through social situations relatively easily, and a weekly speech workshop and one-to-one sessions allow him to have both normal and what we call 'specialised' conversations like the ones detailed above. He seems to understand and appreciate the difference between the two. Overall, he can participate well in regular class activity. His word skills must be constantly reinforced through schemes like the Five Minute Box and similar activities, and his social skills can be built up through team games with clear, simple rules. Master M actively prefers complex, involved games, but has a tendency to invent the rules himself. We have created many board and card games together that Master M feels are 'fair'. Bibliography Least Restrictive Environment Implementation Policy Paper (Mills R, May 1998) http://www.vesid.nysed.gov/specialed/publications/policy/lrepolicy.htm Action Steps Healthy School Environment Adapted by permission of the publisher from Marx, E. & Wooley, S. F. (Eds.) (1999). Health Is Academic: A Guide to Coordinated School Health Programs. New York: Teachers College Press., (c) 1998 by Education Development Center, Inc. All rights reserved. http://www2.edc.org/MakingHealthAcademic/Concept/actions_environment.asp www.wikipedia.org - Deoxys 2: Literacy Difficulties The key ingredients for a successful reader could be defined as follows: Goodman (1967), cited in Adams (1993), calls skilful reading a 'psycholinguistic guessing game', but Adams seems to suggest otherwise. He reckons that the key to successful reading is visual knowledge of words, which in turns demands solid visual familiarity with the groups of letters. ...read more.

Conclusion

Rather, the toys are now used as a whole-class system for good behaviour, and Master M can observe the children holding the toys 'correctly'. Another common strategy is the use of 'rule cards' or social stories to enforce the expected behaviour of the child. Master M has had these in place since Reception, but it is fair to say they have no impact at all on his behaviour. When I shared social stories with him in Year 2, he considered them 'stupid'. Master M knows exactly what the school rules are, openly admitting that "If I want to do something I will just do it". This led to a simple discussion about the consequences of unwanted behaviour and the positive rewards available for good behaviour. When focussing Master M on a writing task, a simple yet effective strategy is to ask him to devise a sentence verbally and then transcribe it onto a whiteboard for him. If the teacher asks the class to put their pencils down, it works best to simply remove the pencil from Master M's hand. A simple but effective strategy is to simply press down on Masih's shoulder or head when he continues talking after silence is requested. A slight weight causes him to instantly refocus on the current situation. Of course, there is the reward system, which allows Master M to have some Internet time or play with a soft Pokemon toy for a while. This is suggested by Mike Connor (1999) who says: 'Allow some access to obsessive behaviour as a reward for positive efforts.' This has been the most effective strategy so far, and by becoming familiar with Master M's favourite topics, I will speak with him on these subjects at playtime as well as reward him with related toys and games at key points thoughout the year. Although a high level of consistency and severity is nescessary for this to work, a simple reward system heightens Master M's enjoyment of the school environment and opens up new areas of interest that I am able to introduce to him. ...read more.

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