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It provides functional expressions for , , , and relationships in soils. In Duncan and Chang's model for triaxial stress conditions: , , may cause volume strain ( dilation and compression) may cause shear strain. Whereas Yin and Graham's KGJ model: , , Thus the volume change and shear strain was taken into account, which is an improvement to Duncan and Chang's model. The limitation of Yin and Graham's KGJ model may exist in the determination of the parameter and the complexity of its calculation.
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Soil gets into the creep stage after its primary consolidation. In the stage the effective stress is invariable, whereas the deformation still grows at a low rate with time. Relaxation: Stress relaxation describes how materials relieve stress under constant strain. Its nonlinearity is described by both stress relaxation and creep. Strain rate effects: When creep happen under the undrained normal-consolidation condition and drained over-consolidation condition, the creep strength decreases along with the decreasing of the strain rate. Time effect: When creep happens under the undrained normal-consolidation condition and drained over-consolidation condition, the creep strength Su decreases with the extending of loaded time.
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msCps (TInitial specimen - T final specimen) = mwCpw (Tfinal water - Tinitial water) Where: Ms= mass of specimen (KG) Mc= mass of colorimeter (KG) Mw= mass of water in calorimeter (KG) T initial specimen = initial temperature of the specimen (�C) T final specimen = final temperature of the specimen (�C) T initial water = Initial temperature of the water (�C) T final water = final temperature water (�C) This equation then becomes: Ms Cps ?Ts= mw Cpw ?tw Where ?Ts = (T initial specimen - T final specimen and ?Tw = (T final water- T initial water)
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The levelling instrument is set up at different points around the Horton building, depending on the position of the manhole covers. A scaled levelling staff is placed on the manhole cover holding by one person. The observer then reads the measurement on the levelling staff through the levelling instrument and records the readings. In order to set up the levelling instrument correctly, we have to ensure that the horizontal line of collimation of the levelling instrument is perpendicular to its vertical axis using a method called "Two Peg Test".
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A Hydro-pneumatic accumulator consists of a twin chambered cylinder which is separated by a floating piston. One chamber is connected to the hydraulic line, and contains the hydraulic fluid. The other chamber contains nitrogen which is held under pressure
HAZOP 1. Accumulator maintains pressure of stored hydraulic fluid a) Functional Failure: Accumulator maintains no pressure * Failure of piston seal, accumulator punctured causing leakage of hydraulic oil * Inlet/Relief valve defective b) Functional Failure: Accumulator maintains more pressure than required * Incorrect calibration of accumulator c) Functional failure: Accumulator maintains less pressure than required * Incorrect calibration of accumulator * Accumulator punctured causing leakage of hydraulic oil d) Functional failure: Hydraulic oil pressure fluctuates * Incorrect calibration of accumulator * Excessive air entrapped in hydraulic fluid 2.
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Atterberg Limits (Liquid Limit Test and Plastic Limit Test b) Compaction test using a Standard Proctor test * Identification of rocks by their key characteristics Characterisation of granular soils Granular materials can be characterised based on particle size using a sieve analysis. Below are the results obtained from the experiment. * Table 1 shows the sieve analysis for sand * Table 2 shows the sieve analysis for gravel Sieve Analysis Results Table 1 - Sand Sieve Analysis Results Sand Mass Retained Sieve Size (mm)
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100 2.05 4.2 80 1.80 3.24 70 1.70 2.89 60 1.63 2.66 40 1.27 1.61 20 .96 0.92 Part III Mass Number of oscillation=30 Mass(g) (s) 94 1.26 66.3 1.25 70.5 1.26 Preliminary question solutions 1. * Yes the period depends on the length of the string because the longer the string, the more the pendulum swings. If the length of the string is short, the pendulum will not swing for long, therefore leading to getting a small period.
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This process is called infiltration. Due to the low temperature at night, water particles freeze and expand over night. This weakens the bonding between the soil particles and decreases the stability of the slope. The force of the gravity added to the weight of the slope allows the ground surface to slide down from the loose soils, causing major landsides. In order to increase the stability of the slope, engineers had incorporated concrete spillways and vegetation method to reduce infiltration.
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The site is Bexley College, Holly Hill Campus and it is understood that the requirement of 1No. four storey building and 2No. single storey buildings are to be constructed in the near future. As part of the proposed scheme, the Client requested a ground investigation to assess the ground conditions on the site and also to investigate the foundations and superstructure requirements. A full site Investigation will provide the following: > Desk Study - collection of known data to include: o Ordnance survey maps o Geological maps o Site history o Previous planning applications/approvals o Current planning application in the area o Development restrictions o Utilities o Aerial photographs o Ecological factors o Local Knowledge o Proximity
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What energy Qw was calculated to bring your mass of water to the boil? Include the correct units. It took 106845J (joules) of energy required to bring 300ml of water to boil. g. What energy input Qk (or Qgh ) was required from your heating device whether it was a kettle, gas hob, or electric ring? Include the correct units. The energy input from the kettles heating device was 17200J (Joules) h. Comment on your calculation for efficiency or energy input.
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This report focuses on the heat recovery system which use the heat from the gas turbine exhaust gas to produce steam. e report has a detailed design of the economizer and evaporator where as the steam drum, gas stack, pumps and duct burner are discussed b
The capital cost of the HRSG unit is �65100. The operating costs which includes the fixed and unfixed cost is �286000. The main raw material being used in a HRSG is water, which is converted to steam. Water at 60p/tonne for 8000 working hours a year costs , �120000. The plant is designed to be highly efficient as well as being safe. Hazard studies were carried out at different stages to ensure the safety of the staff as well as the equipment. 2. Introduction Civ-Chem Engineering Solutions was approached to design a effluent treatment plant and a CHP.
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defined as a solid-like mixture of CB and ground, roasted cacao seed, normally mixed with sugar, an emulsifier and vanilla (or vanillin). There are three main types of chocolate which are milk chocolate, dark chocolate and white chocolate each with differences in their compositions. Milk chocolate is made up of sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor and added milk solids. Dark chocolate is made up of sugar, cocoa butter and cocoa liquor and white chocolate is made up of sugar, cocoa butter and milk solids.
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4. Obtain relationships between partial pressures and conversion rates of all compounds and use this to calculate (-ra) by using equation 3. 5. Finally bed volume can be calculated from the equation 1 below by using Simpson's rule as the bed volume is represented by the area under the curve and the height of each bed can be found by dividing the volume by area.  A detailed overview of the steps mentioned Step 1 Convert all the flow rates from kg/hr to kmol/hr to establish the temperature of the varying conversion rates. Compounds in the reactor feed Flow rate kg/hr Flow rate kmol/hr Ethyl benzene 27632 260.68 Steam 62933 3496.28 Methylbenzene 27 0.29 Styrene 215.4 2.07 Step
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Producing drinking water. Key parameters for potable water can be divided into three groups i.e. physical, chemical and biological parameters.
Low pH water affects the taste of water (metallic) and corrosion on the water supply pipe. - Total Organic Carbon (TOC): TOC is amount of carbon bound in an organic compound (wikipedia). - Inorganic chemicals: Nitrate: Odourless, colourless and tasteless therefore can only be found by testing. High amount of contents will be cause of shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome. Lead Biological parameters - Coliform bacteria: Coliform is a group of Bacteria from various environments. Mostly, it is not harmful but presence in the water means that there is a problem with the disinfection process.
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a model of a two storey building. The floors are held together by four elastic struts, as is the bottom floor to the ground. The motor can induce forced vibration and there are accelerometers on each floor to measure the acceleration in the x direction. The accelerometers send a root mean squared (average) Voltage signal, which is then conditioned in order to cancel out any electronic disturbances and also amplified ten times to provide the software with larger signal. The data is then processed by a spectrum analyser which provides the computer program, 'Virtual bench' with output data which can be plotted.
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I organised my objectives based upon how much experience and the requirements which should be met to gain maximum improvement of competency based on their assessment as it shown in table 1. AIPM assessment Levels Level 4 (CPPP) Level 5 (CPPM) Level 6 (CPPD) AIPM requirement Approximately 2-3 years' experience as a project officer 3 years' practical experience as a project manager 5 or more years' experience in directing multiple projects ICB assessment Levels Level C (CPM) Level B (CSPM)
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Although the education systems are different in most countries around the world, the aim of this education is similar. The purpose of this report is to outline the similarities and differences between Saudi Arabia and Australia in the education system. There are some similarities in the education system between Saudi Arabia and Australia. In both countries, the early childhood education is not compulsory such as: kindergarten which starts from age 3 to 5 years old in order to develop their skills and knowledge. Also, children wear a school uniform, which varies from one state to another. Moreover, class size in both countries is a maximum of thirty students.
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Linear measurment. The objective of this fieldwork is to conduct a survey of a small area by applying techniques of linear measurement and also work out the area of irregular shape at the site.
4. Bubble Staff must be held vertical to ensure accuracy. Some staffs may incorporate a circular bubble. In normal case to ensure accurate work it is necessary for the staff to be held vertical, a small rod level may help the holder. Procedures 1. Two stations are set up on the opposite side of each other of the measured area. 2. A survey line which joins the two stations together which was set up by 30m tape and the reading was recorded. 3. The survey portion was outlined on a sketch paper. 4. Regular interval between the stations is determined, which was depended on the length of the survey line.
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It is used to fix a point on ground for measuring distance. 5 m measuring tape It is made of steel with a protective coating. It is used to measure a relatively short distance in linear measurement. Bubble It is a small container with a bubble inside the liquid. It is fixed fix on the ranging rod in this case and is used to ensure that the rod is perpendicular to the ground. C. Procedures 1) The reference points A, B, C were given. 2) The distance from AB, BC and CA were found by the type.
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* To carry out test to identify the sources of noise, vibration and harshness in SKF Jaguar bearing. The objectives of this experiment were: * To complete test to acquire a practical knowledge of new and used bearing performance and method of condition monitoring of bearing to predict failure. * To analyses the health level of a bearing in rotating machinery through noise (dB level) vibration monitoring methods. * To give recommendation for improve test equipments and procedures for identifying specified in SKF Jaguar bearing. Experimental Procedure The motor drove the SKF Jaguar bearing which was installed in the fabricated hub, and using the inverter to control and adjust the rotational running speed of the electric motor.
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Figure 1: A block diagram of the pendulum control system An ideal controller would keep the pendulum balanced with very little change in the angle, ?, or cart displacement. Obviously limitations would be imposed based on the actual parameters of the system as well as the method for implementing a controller. Thus designing a controller that is close to ideal is a challenging design problem. QUESTION : 1 1.1 Theory of Predicted Result Identify Gp(s), the transfer function of the pendulum in both the upright and hanging configuration.
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which should be ignored for this exercise. As shown, in the AMI, for every change between 0's and 1's, there is both a negative and positive pulse. The HDB3 coding as shown has similar characteristics, but also has advanced techniques including using Violations for every continuous sequence of 4 or more zeros (0's). Reference 1 HDB3 is the European equivalent of B8ZS. It works in a similar way to HDB3 but uses 4 zeroes rather than 8. After the 4 zeros a violation will occur and the polarity is set to be the same as the previous positive bit, e.g.
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Part A - Layer 1 Operation in an Ethernet LAN The Physical Layer, also known as Layer 1 in the OSI model comprises of the electrical signalling and cables. This is the interface where information enters and exits the OSI model. This is the only layer in the OSI model; were data is physically transferred over the network interface. The main functions of the Physical Layer are: (Reference 2) * To Define Hardware Specifications: This is the details of operations; which include cables, connectors, wireless transceivers, network interface cards and other hardware devices that function on the Physical Layer, examples include RJJ45, NRZ, Coaxial, Twisted Pair.
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