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For example, Mary blames her husband and his tightfistedness for her addiction to morphine. Due to their mother being an addict, Jamie is unable to bring girls home, thus he visits prostitutes. Such behavior has influenced his younger brother Edmund, "making him old before his time" (35). Consequently, Jamie is at fault for Edmund's poor health. In turn, his mother, for causing the addiction by being brought into the world, as well as worsening it with his own illness, blames Edmund.
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'The divisions within Northern Ireland society have as much to do with class as religion or nationality' Discuss.
Northern Ireland had the second highest church attendance in Western Europe after the Republic of Ireland, with 95% of Catholics and 45% of Protestants attending church on a weekly basis in 1969 and there can be no denying the fact that the divisions within Northern Irish society have been given religious labels - on a superficial level at least it is a battle between Catholics and Protestants. If this is so, then it is not unreasonable question to ask just which of the two is principally at fault.
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He gives us proof by looking at the people 'flocking and running to Theatres and curtens, daylie and hourely, night and daye, tyme and tyde to see Playes and Enterludes, where such wanton gestures, such bawdie speeches... such clipping and culling: such winckinge and glancinge of wanton eyes, and the lyke is used, as is wonderfull to behold.'2 Stubbes, like many other writers of these tracts, is mainly against playing on the Sabbath but in this attack we can see also the concern for the 'idolatry' commanded by the stage.
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not what the Puritans strive to describe, but on the contrary, that it's a truly Christian church not subject to any future reformation. This text is composed of three paragraphs , organized according to a coherent line of arguments relying on subtle opposition. First of all, one fundamental assumption common to the Puritans and Hooker, is that the contemporary Church of England should be based on the same model given by the Bible and the example of the early Church.
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He was a biblical scholar and an outstanding student of Greek and Latin. He placed a great emphasis on the administrative importance of the Church and made little attack on the theology. He felt that Church was in dire need for a spiritual leader yet he did not criticise the contemporary Papacy, which conveyed that he favoured reform rather than revolution. He disliked the Monastic system of the Church whereby men completely abandoned their lives in the ordinary world to devote themselves to a life of prayer and mediation in monasteries. He also showed a dislike for indulgences as a truly repentant Christian had already gained remission for his/hers sins so therefore should not have to pay money to the church.
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the break with Rome allegiance, and Henry 8, Edward 6, and Mary's respective reigns. * * * The Queen in her letter is addressing the bishops, and plays on the constant contrast between the pronouns "your" and "our" : "our realm x 4 ; your church; your own Romish idolatry", implying that the bishops belong to a different church and even a different universe than her and her loyal subject, though they are members of the clergy of the Church of England.
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It was during these charters of exploration and the hunt for a prime settlement site that England discovered Roanoke Island. Roanoke comes from the Indian word Rawenoke, meaning shell money. Roanoke Island is just off the coast of what is now North Carolina, and is surrounded by the four bodies of water including the Pamlico, Croatan, Albemarle, and Roanoke Sounds. Part of the Outer Banks is blocked from the Atlantic Ocean on the eastern coast by a strip of land called Bodie Island.
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After the relative political calm of Elizabeth I's reign, the years that ensued were a constant power struggle between the king and his subjects. Neither was trying to rid the other of power entirely, but simply establish each other's limits. During the reign of James I, Edward Coke asserted that Law was not the instrument, but the boundary of royal prerogative. This is a political stance until it is realised that as Henry VIII had argued, James argued that as king he was divinely ordained, and thus answerable only to God.
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The government used different methods of trying to discourage the Puritans including, "issuing decrees against unorthodox practices, increasing supervision over local clergymen, and removing ministers from their livings" (Vaughn 20). Then, in 1629, Charles I dissolved the Parliament and with this Puritans gave up most of their hopes of reforming the church (Vaughn 25, 35). John Winthrop, a former attorney, helped convince Puritans to come to the New World. On August 29, 1629, the Cambridge Agreement was signed. This gave the Puritans who moved to the Massachusetts Bay Colony a charter freeing the people from the British government and free from interference by company officers (Vaughn 58).
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British Civilisation - The Church of England - What are the principal motives underlying religion legislation in the reign of Queen Elisabeth?
She applied then her religious settlement through these two essential and basic acts with the help of her chief advisor William Cecil in 1559. Indeed, as for the Supremacy question, as Henry VIII's and Anne Boleyn's daughter, Elisabeth was only aged three when the Pope considered the marriage of her parents void, and her mother sent to the scaffold. Then, she was declared illegitimate from a strict catholic viewpoint - and later excommunicated in 1570 - and subsequently lost her rights to access the English throne.
- Word count: 1784
The battle of Kinsale was one of the main factors that eventually caused 'the downfall of the last of the Gaelic Lordships and the end of the old Irish world.'
Both O'Neill and O'Donnell had their own personal motives against the English. O'Neill had previously allied himself with the O'Donnell family using powerful marriage connections making this one of the most powerful alliances in Ireland. O'Neill was familiar with English customs as he had grown up following them. He received an English education and was familiar with the English style of battle and army. Despite the fact that he was Catholic he was loyal to the Queen, joining England in battle against Irish rebels many times.
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Since the tribes of North America had not yet developed writing systems, their literature was entirely oral. This oral literature, along with the colonists first written works, forms the beginning of the American literary heritage. Several hundred Native American tribes already populated America by the time the Europeans arrived. The Europeans didn't encounter all of these tribes at once. Explorers from many different nations came into contact with them at different times. These widely dispersed tribes of Native Americans differed from one another in government, customs, language, housing, social organization, and methods of survival.
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Indeed were it not for the characteristics of Cortes the 1519 voyage may never have been launched at all. Rather than for political or religious reasons, Spanish exploration during this period was used primarily as a means to economic expansion. The wealthy Governor Velasquez sponsored the 1519 voyage ostensibly for exploration but effectively to seek the almost mythical wealth of the Aztec civilisation. Although Velasquez had initially placed Cortes in charge of the expedition, rumours concerning his "trustworthiness, ambitions and political manoeuvrings"2 persuaded him to review his leadership. Upon learning of his imminent downfall, the arrogant Cortes set sail early, determined to pick up supplies and troops in Trinidad and carry on regardless.
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Matters of religion were at the heart of the state and Elizabeth was well aware that she needed to minimise the possibilities of widespread discontent and revolt. She had known from an early age that her position of power was always volatile. She was female, single, regarded by many European Catholic noblemen as the illegitimate offspring of her father's mistress, Anne Boleyn, and significantly England was still technically at war with France. Furthermore she had inherited a kingdom which was a second-rate power, strongly overshadowed by Spain and France.
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Yet, it is arguable that Mary was thrust into the centre of this plot by revisionist views. Furthermore, it is likely that Northumberland, Westmoreland and Lord Dacre were responsible for the proposed marriage, as a front to securing their own desires for power in the revolt. However, given the evidence of Elizabeth's anti-Catholic measures in response, it is fair to assess that she feared Mary's influence in England and externally in catalysing a Catholic Counter-Reformation against her, and the Northern Rebellion showed how she would be willing to undertake such a quest.
- Word count: 587
The Puritans expected James to agree with them as he was from Presbyterian Scotland. The Puritans were very anti-Catholic and wanted him to 'purify' the church and get rid of any last traces of Catholicism. However Catholics thought James would be sympathetic towards them because of his tolerant nature and the fact that his wife was a practising Catholic. They were hoping to be allowed to practise their faith and have recusancy fines abolished. When he first came into power, James made some attempts at achieving religious harmony. He pleased the Catholics in 1603 by reducing recusancy fines to less than a quarter of what they had been previously.
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by issuing contradictory instructions. However, this time her Privy Council ensured that there would be no reprieve for Mary. The execution was carried out at Fotheringay a week later without Elizabeth being informed in advance. She was buried initially in Peterborough cathedral, being moved later to Westminster Abbey when her son became James I of England. On receiving the news of Mary's execution the streets of Scotland, France and Spain resounded to cries of outrage and vows of revenge, but it was mainly shock speaking, not considered policy.
- Word count: 1115
Consider the arguments for and against the claim that the puritans presented a real challenge in the Elizabethan House of Commons.
That the Settlement survived does not mean, necessarily, that there were no dangers to the English Protestant Church. In Parliament the Puritans posed such a threat in the legislation that they attempted to pass through with there being two distinct areas. The Prayer Book/Common Prayer Book and reforms to the church. For example in both 1571 and 1572 parliamentary sessions, bills were introduced to reform the Prayer book, With Walter Strickland wanting to remove practises regarded as Catholic in 1571, and bill proposing the removal of some rites and ceremonies. Moreover in the 1572 session John Field and Thomas Wilcox introduced The Admonition of Parliament attacking the Church for its similarities to a Catholic style church.
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How far do you agree with the view that Elizabeth remained single because her councillors could not agree on a suitable husband for her?
There we certainly no shortage of suitors for the young queen. There were many young nobles, some English, some foreign, who were more than keen to woe England's premiere, the most notable being Lord Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. The tale of the childhood romance between Dudley and Elizabeth was the stuff of gossip at court and it seemed that much of her youthful life, she had been passionately in love with Dudley. He was clearly her favourite and received regular audiences, lands and titles.
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One of the main features of the Puritans is that they sought change to 'improve' Elizabeth's settlement; they mostly did not want a complete overhaul and oust it altogether generally speaking, and what seemed to get the most opposition were areas of Catholic origin such as vestments and the cross on the head at baptism. Whatever level of Puritanism you look at, Elizabeth would no doubt have been aware of them all, because they all have in common the dissatisfactions of a protestant but their individual reasons varied.
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This culminated in a fear that they were making Scotland into a French colony and "have entered upon the invasion of England by means of Scotland"3, it being the "the easiest road"4,"pressing with all possible means Mary's claims to the English Crown"5. France itself was putting a "band of soldiers already there planted"6 as well as "warlike munitions"7. So therefore intervention was "necessary for the defence of the realm to arm some convenient force"8. However there were voices of opposition in the cabinet from people like Arundel who claimed that intervention in Scotland would be seen as provocative.
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How far is it true to say that the Elizabethan Church settlement was 'little concerned with religion and much more concerned with political stability?
* Elizabeth's first choice in Bishops were the Marian Bishops as they had already shown their loyalty to the monarchy despite their extreme Catholic beliefs. o Political advantages were also gained by Elizabeth from the religious settlement, that supports the argument. However these economic gains were only contributory factors compared with the political stability of Elizabeth. More importantly was the conformity of those subscribing to the religious settlement imposed by Elizabeth.
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It is perhaps easier to agree with Bossy as during the 1560s many Catholics reluctantly accepted the new church, often because of a lack of strong leadership from the papacy. Pope Pius IV hoped to persuade Elizabeth to join the catholic fold and Philip II feared that if the queen was overthrown Mary Queen of Scots would succeed thus driving England into the arms of France. Also the penalties issued to Catholics under the terms of the 1559 settlement were deliberately made light in order to steer them away from attempted opposition.
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She wanted to resolve the extreme hostilities between Catholics and Protestants which her sister had created. Both Elizabeth and Cecil 'held religion to be the matter of conscience'. For this the queen felt that religion had to be settled within the country by getting dissolving Pope and Spanish dominance. She introduced the 'Act of Supremacy', making her the governor of the Church instead of supreme head, reducing the Pope's influence. Many were uncomfortable with this because they did not like a woman being in charge of the state or the Church. The Queen restored the Edwardian Prayer Book of 1549 and 1552, which was portrayed to be capable of 'either a Catholic or Protestant interpretation.
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England could not survive as being enemy to both France and Spain the two leading Catholic powers. Therefore Elizabeth had to aid the Netherlands without openly going to war with Spain. For example she employed German mercenaries led by John Casimir. This desperate attempt to stop Spain gaining full control over the Netherlands did not work but it is an example of how Elizabeth was prepared to stop Spain gaining a base to launch a serious invasion on England. Circumstances also played into English hands that allowed Spain to not got to war with England. For example Spain's bankruptcy meant that the Spanish army in the Netherlands were not being paid and eventually mutilated which gave the upper hand to the Dutch, who forced the Spanish army out for a short period.
- Word count: 1198