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EI-D-'Puritan attempts to change the Church settlement of 1558-59 were utterly unsuccessful during the following three decades.' How far do you agree with this judgement?
This is very typical of Puritan efforts to pass puritan ideas through parliament. They had neither the significant numbers nor powerful positions in parliament to make significant legislation be passed. Most importantly Elizabeth had the power to stop any legislation that she did not like or thought unsuitable. The Puritan attempts to pass legislation to change the Church settlement were unsuccessful mainly because of Elizabeth's powers to stop bills that did not fit in with her view of the religious settlement. This meant that she could, with in given boundaries, pick and choose what settlement she wanted.
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Why was Mary Queen of Scots a threat to Elizabeth I and what problems did Elizabeth face in dealing with her?
England and many powerful European countries like France and Spain who for many years plotted to depose and kill Elizabeth in order to put Mary on her throne. Mary had been brought up in France, as her mother, Mary of Guise, was French. She was married to the dauphin of France and when he died in 1561 she returned to Scotland where she took her rightful place on the Scottish throne after the death of her mother who had been acting as regent.
- Word count: 1126
'A religious settlement of her own choosing.' How far is this an accurate view of the settlement of the Church of England under Elizabeth I?
Elizabeth chose a Catholic style hierarchy, where the Bishops instructed the clergy on religious matters according to Elizabeth. In theory this meant that Elizabeth could control the Church through the Bishops, leading her religion into the direction she wanted. However this depended on the loyalty of her Bishops, and since all but one of the Bishops refused the Oath of Supremacy, then Elizabeth had to use the Marian exiles living in Europe, who had not proved their loyalty to the crown unlike the previous Bishops. Elizabeth wanted subservient, uniform civil servants not reformers, this is why she chose the Catholic priests first.
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Elizabeth was also uncertain what kind of Protestantism she would adopt, as there were many different types that she could chose from. A.F. Pollard stated that Elizabeth was "indifferent to religion", although this claim was criticised by Sir John Neale, who took the view that Elizabeth wanted to go back to the religion of her father's day. In 1559, she told Parliament "We hope to rule... in like wise as the King my father held you in". Elizabeth was also, however, aware that her religious beliefs differed from other rulers and the idea of a coalition of Catholic forces, Spain and France, against England was a worry throughout her reign.
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To Richards, Shay's Rebellion has never been fully appreciated because it has always been seen as only a small group of poor farmers and debtors disputing the local civil authority. In spite of these beliefs, Richards states that Shay's Rebellion was not a small group, but encompassed thousands of citizens of Massachusetts. When the Rebellion was put down, there were "eighteen death sentences, two actual hangings, several hundred indictments, and some four thousand confessions of wrongdoing."(p.43)
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The two articles also make a particular reference to the academic performances of both boys. This portrays the two as hard working and able men, which is a boost of their characters. Jon Venables and Robert Thompson are also shown to have a conscience which is not so clear and is where the delicate part of their characters is shown; where Venable became suicidal when jeered at in the street and Thompson feeling that he deserved to die. The imagery used in the Sunday Times and that of the Mail On Sunday can be said to be relatively opposites.
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� Elizabeth's methods of negotiating her gender have been partially misunderstood. � There is no question that early modern society was deeply patriarchal in its structure and attitudes. � Male governed most property arrangements as well as the laws of succession to the crown. � Women were not expected to assert any independent authority, were deemed less important to male relatives whether fathers, brothers or husbands. � John Knox railed against female monarchy. � Female rule was no great novelty in the 16th century; not only had women inherited the thrones of Castile, Scotland and England before Elizabeth's accession.
- Word count: 1135
"Mary Queen of Scots was a villain who deserved to lose her throne and her life" Do you agree with this interpretation of Mary Queen of Scots?
In 1566 a plot was devised by Darnley and a few accomplices to murder Rizzio. One night when the Queen was with Rizzio and her ladies, the lights went out and Rizzio was then dragged outside and stabbed to death. Mary later found out Darnley was involved and this drove the couple even further apart. No sooner than she had found out about Darnley being involved in Rizzios murder, than her son, James I of England and James VI of Scotland was born. Lord Darnley and Mary were driven away from their home and hid in a castle.
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France again lessened its threat to Elizabethan England when, in 1562 the first civil war of religion was started. This lessened the threat from France to England as the main French army controlling family, the Guise were heavily involved in the first civil war of religion. They had infact started the war by slaughtering French Huguenots for worshipping publicly. This was a misguided step as the Huguenots were a fast growing, self-arming militant group who by 1560, had become a state within a state. France was yet again made even less of a threat for England when, in 1572 the two countries signed the treaty of Blois.
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William Cecil spoke of the situation as "the king of France being both bestride the realm like a colossus with one foot in Calais and one in Scotland". Elizabeth was threatened by this move, however focus was taken of the situation when in April 1559 the king of France, Henri II died. In 1560 Mary Stuart's mother, Mary of Guise died and subsequently, after the initial threat of a powerful French queen with a claim to the throne of England the threat was halted in 1560 when French troops were driven from Scotland by the English.
- Word count: 1246
Mary Tudor was born on February 18, 1516 at Greenwich Palace she was the daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon (Loades 14).
Mary immediately proclaimed herself queen by divine and human law (Loades 176). Mary became queen but not until English nobles tried to replace her with Lady Jane Grey, the nine day queen, (Prescott 152). Mary's reign began in July 1553, she was not accepted easily, people tried to exclude her from the succession. They often used her illegitimacy as an excuse ("Mary I" 308). At the age of Thirty seven her turbulent reign began (Prescott 149). After a lifetime of sorrow and danger, Mary Tudor was now the most powerful person in England (Lewis 300).
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There was a sound of thunder, it was the beginning of the nightmare. "James James get up its 9.30, you've got golf today with your dad", "5 more minutes" says James "No you've got to get up" replied Mary, "OK, OK I'm getting up."
James kept himself to himself. However, John, his dad, is trying to get James into golf even though James doesn't enjoy it at all. As James got up he opened his curtains hoping for rain to cancel the golf, but it was very sunny especially for late January in Newcastle. James knew it was going to be another one of those days when he goes out to experiment new hobbies with his patronising dad who looks down on James. John is a very sporty man and wishes his son was a little bit more like him.
- Word count: 708
James joined Buffy the vampire slayer in season 2 with Juliet Landau as the on and off characters Spike and Drusilla. Due to his overwhelming popularity with the Buffy the Vampire viewers, he made another appearance in Season 3 before coming back as a full time character in Season 4. REGULAR/RECURRING TELEVISION ROLES Buffy the Vampire Slayer Year: 1997-Present | Role: Spike (William the Bloody) FEATURE FILMS The Enforcers Year: 2001 | Role: Sully Chance Year: 2001 | Role: Simon The House on Haunted Hill Year: 1999 | Role: Channel 3 Cameraman Winding Roads Year: 1998 | Role: Billy Johnson TELEVISION GUEST STARRING ROLES Gene Roddenberry's Andromeda Airdate: 11/28/2001 | Role: Charlemagne Bolivar | Episode: "Into the Labyrinth" (#2.08)
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Success in these aims varied. Rhode Island welcomed people of every shade of religious belief but Catholics and Quakers were stilled under pressure to conform to the Church of England. The Huguenots in the French colonies were expelled in New France because of the growing belief in absolutism by the French monarchy. In the South Americas, faced with the prospect of the Inquisition, Jews fled to North America and lived successful lives. Civil liberties were too not achieved by all Europeans.
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How far has the importance of the missionary priests in ensuring the survival of English Catholicism been exaggerated?
This argument is supported by the fact that Catholicism died out in areas such as Cornwall and Northeast Wales, which had been Catholic strongholds in the 1560s, where the missionary priests had failed to reach by the 1580s. Some historians, such as Bossy, argue that it was only the arrival of the missionary priests who 'saved English Catholicism from extinction'. The argument that English Catholicism would have died out altogether without the help of the missionary priests as the congregations needed spiritual guidance from a Catholic point of view is, however, essentially flawed, as the missionary priests did not preach
- Word count: 1381
A summary of the themes covered in St. Xaviers letter to the Society of Jesus at Rome about his mission in India.
He began with teaching them the Ten Commandments and read to them the articles in the Creed. According to St. Xavier, Indians were eager to learn from him and adopted the religion readily. They spread his teachings to their neighbours and friends. b) Idolatry Worship: St. Xavier baptized countless Hindus, sometimes the whole villages in a day. He took pride in the youth that he had baptized at infancy as they listened to him passionately and would do anything at his command.
- Word count: 1465
The wealth of Spain paid for his efforts to control Western Europe. Despite sizeable incomes from parts of the empire, Charles?s rein encountered monetary difficulties attributing to military defeats. Encircled by the Holy Roman Empire, France existed as the empires great rival and had three major conflicts with the Holy Roman Empire during Charles?s rein. The first began in 1521 against Charles?s nemesis Francis I of France and was highly successful, driving the French out of Milan and defeating and capturing Francis at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. There were three later conflicts where the outcome was less conclusive and France acted as a constant oppose to the empire.
- Word count: 1727