University Degree: 1900-1919 essays

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114 University Degree 1900-1919 essays

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Account for the attractiveness of eugenics amongst left-wing social reformers

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    One can see how these views could be shared by sections of both the left and the right. Spektorowski and Mizrachi point out that "observers seldom note the potential alliance between the revolutionary, moralist and technocratic currents of socialism, and conservative nationalism"4 Both of these opposing political positions could include the belief in the strong state and government intervention necessary for the advocacy of eugenic social policy which would concern itself with the most intimate aspect of people's lives - reproduction. In fact, it was because of these ideas that certain sections of the conservative right, who were also sceptical of science, opposed eugenics as much as the 'old-style' non-interventionist Liberals on the left.

    • Length: 2910 words
  2. Marked by a teacher

    The impact of WWI on British Society

    About 120,000 of these were in the British Expeditionary Army and the rest were stationed abroad. It was clear that more soldiers would be needed to defeat the German Army. The war minister Lord Kitchener immediately began a recruiting campaign by calling for men aged between 19 and 30 to join the British Army. At first this was very successful with an average of 33,000 men joining every day. Three weeks later Kitchener raised the recruiting age to 35 and by the middle of September over 500,000 men had volunteered their services. At the beginning of the war the army had strict specifications about who could become soldiers.

    • Length: 2442 words
  3. The Dundee jute industry and the Empire.

    Jute is grown not in huge plantations like sugar and cotton, but on small plots of land by peasant farmers. The growing and harvesting is very labour intensive and the peasants call on all members of the family to work the land, being the cheapest of all labourers. Figure 22.1 (unit 22, p.54) shows the jute being harvested in West Bengal c. 1900. It is worth noting that the methods of growing, the use of peasants and the cheapest of labour costs were very comparable to the methods of flax production in Russia at this time, flax being a material already being used in the Dundee factories before the introduction of jute.

    • Length: 1784 words
  4. How did the Queensland Sugar industry manage to prosper after the introduction of the White Australia Policy and the repatriation of the Kanakas ?

    After the repatriation of the Kanakas, the government did not want to leave the Australian Sugar Industry in an eerie spot, so they introduced subsidies such as the protective tariff, in which a tax of 6 pound per a ton was put on all imported sugars into Australia. The Government also attempted use subsidies as a way to promote the use of only white labour. This was seen through the Sugar Bounty Act in which an excise of 3 pounds on all sugar consumed in Australia in which a rebate of 2 pound per ton was returned to producers whose sugar was produced by white labour only.

    • Length: 1058 words
  5. Book Review: The Origins of the First World War: Controversies and Consensus (Annika Mombauer, 2002)

    and how this historical knowledge can be utilised in the present to produce a publication that has far greater depth than a mere analysis of the origins of the First World War. Mombauer's discussion beings with the immediate attempts made by all of the countries involved in the conflict to be seen as fighting a defensive war against foreign aggressors. Particular attention is paid to the 'coloured books' that served the dual purpose of attempting to alleviate guilt and garner support at home for the war.

    • Length: 2475 words
  6. The decade of the 1890s marked a distinct reorientation in the United States Government's outlook on the world. Discuss the major impulses and events that marked this turn toward 'American empire', and analyse the public debates that it engendered. Who we

    but events will annex them'1. So, in 1899, when the war in the Philippines was coming to a close, the Americans and the Filipinos had differing expectations. On one hand, the United States were eager to gain the territorial acquisition from Spain; this was due to the fact that European countries were striving for land in China and, thus, arose the need for an American gateway to the Far East. The Filipinos, on the other hand, hoped to use the Spanish-American War as a means of attaining independence, and felt betrayed when the Americans, contrary to their statements of having no interest in long-term territorial acquisitions, continued to occupy the islands.

    • Length: 3376 words
  7. What were the causes of the First World War? In this literature review the arguments of Mulligan, Ferguson, Schroeder, and Williamson will all be analysed.

    Ferguson disagrees to a moderate extent with this, namely in the case of the naval arms race. Ferguson (1999 p.85) argues that "the British victory in the naval arms race...is hard to regard in any meaningful sense a cause". That is because it was such a convincing victory that it "ceased to be a cause of friction". Williamson (1989 p.232) challenges this claim by stating that the scope of the military and economic differences between nations "fueled fears" among military leaders.

    • Length: 1133 words
  8. Germany has never been an immigration society. Discuss the history of foreign workers in modern Germany in light of this statement.

    However, from this theory evolved 'Social Darwinism' in which historian Peter Dicken's interpretation is that the "fittest' in terms of physical and mental prowess are most likely to survive and reproduce",2 in short, a notion in favour of a 'hierarchy' between races. This is relevant when discussing the history of foreign workers in modern Germany as it was this 'twisted' and somewhat 'scientific' form of Darwinism which became the foundation for Hitler's Nazi Germany, and inspiration for the Republikaner's policies in modern Germany.

    • Length: 3480 words
  9. Free essay

    What were the major political and socio-economic changes introduced by the British colonial authorities in Kenya. What did the authorities seek to achieve by these changes?

    labourer 'incessantly [forced] to sell his labour power in order to live'".2 The Colonial Authority propped up the settler agricultural sector mainly because it was assumed that white farming practises would have higher productivity levels than the natives'. In 1904, a year prior to the UK government declaring the region as a Protectorate (with an Executive and Legislative councils), Sir Donald Stewart, then referred to as Governor, concluded an Agreement with the Massai. "They were being asked to vacate their best and favourite grazing grounds in their central homeland, besides being divided into two.

    • Length: 2032 words
  10. Federation was the beginning of Australias history as one united nation. The notion of Federation first surfaced in the 1840s and 60s.

    At this time the states within Australia were all working as independent nations and each had their own defence forces. However it soon became evident that each of these forces was not enough to defend Australia against a possible threat. This threat soon became evident when the state of Queensland feared Germany's intention to "take" New Guinea for Britain.3 This brought about a quick convention in Sydney which brought to light more fears such as France's interest in the New Hebrides4.

    • Length: 1356 words
  11. What do you understand by the notion of an invented tradition?

    The first part was achieved eventually in 1922 with the creation of the Irish Free State but only after much sacrifice and with the exception of six northern counties which became Northern Ireland and remained a part of the British Empire. The second part of the objective of the 'Rebels' of 1916 would appear on the surface to be a relatively simple task but the reality was far more problematic. The Irish nation that the Nationalists had claimed to be reviving, "In the name of God and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood"

    • Length: 1310 words
  12. Change and adaption in Sub-Saharan Africa 1880-2000. What are the shortcomings of the concept of tribe when describing the realities of African traditions?

    If we take the dictionary definitions of the word 'tribe' at face value, it quickly becomes obvious that its application to social structures in Africa is, at best, tenuous. More importantly, it is critical to note that the term 'tribe' is an historical construct deriving from a specific historical situation, i.e. that of Imperialism and as such is not very well suited to explaining very much beyond this specific historical situation. This essay will aim to elucidate this colonial preconception and argue that only by clearing away quintessentially colonialist stereotypes can we begin to understand the richness and diversity of African realities and the problematic dangers of its modern day usage 'Tribe' is a derogatory and intellectually lazy term.

    • Length: 2613 words
  13. What aspects of Faradays life and work contributed to his reputation? How does the picture presented in the obituary compare to the picture presented in The Open University Book 1, Chapter 4?

    Faraday was known as a self-made man and for the purity of his life, which was precisely how the Victorians considered scientists should be. They believed that their motivation should be led by curiosity about the world not by the interest in rewards. (Falconer & James, 2008) Furthermore, obituarist admires Faraday's lecturing style naming him as the "lecturer of highest rank", his "rarest felicity of experimenting", so that the illustrations of his subjects seemed to answer "with magical ease to his call", which is important aspect of his work that contributed to his reputation.

    • Length: 757 words
  14. Reading Poetry

    (Christianson, 2004) In this poem, the poet relates to his temporal experiences -the Second World War and his perception of an underlying timeless reality. Muir experienced to the full the fear of the twentieth century: the Wars, new regimes, and changes in the world. In "The Horses" he describes a vision of life after the nuclear holocaust. The idea to go back to the nature after the war probably was based on Muir's feelings that "a larger unity-between the human community and the animals and the natural surroundings."

    • Length: 754 words
  15. Imperialism. To what extent did Empire affect the lives of Continental Europeans?

    The map of Africa was divided up as a "result of bargains among the colonising powers to suit their administrative or diplomatic convenience" (1994, p2). Historians attempted to conceptualise the 'scramble for Africa' using Economic, Social and Political theories; most conclude that this unprecedented growth in Empire was the consequence of Industrialisation. In examining the affect Empire had on the lives of continental Europeans one will discuss German and French society. Economic Historian's have long argued that that European Empires sought overseas markets for trade and investment in the late 19th century as a response to the excess capital and

    • Length: 2314 words
  16. Examine the Causes and Consequences of the Revolutionary Events of 1905.

    His father, Alexander III, was widely disliked, his predecessor was Alexander II who was liberal and liked by the people, whereas Alexander III was conservative, refused reforms, and was openly anti-semitic. The government under Alexander III was anti-semitic as a whole, encouraging pogroms in an almost official way (Read, 1996: 25) and forcing Jews to live in the Pale of Settlement. Alexander III revoked many of his father's more liberal policies, and limited the rights of the zemstvos (self-governmental institutions)

    • Length: 1407 words
  17. Account for the Bolshevik Success in October 1917.

    These first revolutionary events were caused by the discontent of the Russian people over the Tsar, Nicholas II, and his poor attempts to run the country. He was an extremely conservative leader who humiliated Russia in the war against Japan, which he did not even believe would happen until it did, thinking Japan was merely bluffing with the threat (Harcave, 1965: 37). These numerous revolutionary outbreaks of 1905 were spearheaded by the day known in Russian history as 'Bloody Sunday', when several revolutionaries were shot in St.

    • Length: 1446 words
  18. Why was Arab Unity so difficult to achieve? There has always existed and inherent ideological weakness in the case for Arab unity.

    There has always existed and inherent ideological weakness in the case for Arab unity. At its commencement it was the extremism of the ottomans that led to Arab Christians on a search for alternative political principles. Thus it was born out of a minority view, in that Arabism appealed to them as a way to an equal coexistence with the Arab world's Muslim majority2. Furthermore it was a principle based on language; this was flawed as language is only a component of identity of civilisation.

    • Length: 3037 words
  19. With reference to the "Boer War" of 1899-1902, explain how imperialism provided the political and cultural impetus for conflict?

    However, it is important not to discount the Boers own imperialist motivations. In fact, the Boer Ultimatum of October 1899 provided some evidence of the Boers aggression in driving the outbreak of conflict2. The political rhetoric which passed between Paul Kruger, President of the Transvaal Republic and Alfred Milner, the British High Commissioner in South Africa, reached a climax in the late 1890s where it began to seem that war was inevitable and provided limited opportunity for either party to back down without total surrender and capitulation of land, power and sovereignty.

    • Length: 1482 words
  20. Jingoism. Originated in national interests against Russian ambitions, British jingoism spread to every aspect of British attitude towards foreigners. Subsequently, jingoism is a widespread characteristic of world superpowers, owing its origin to the negat

    When this over-self-esteem goes with power, the person who has it, of course, uses it. In the case of Britain, it is actually a group of people who have the power, and these people have no choice but to use it as they should in order to preserve the borders of the empire. The origins of the term 'jingoism' are from a song by MacDermott and G. W. Hunt (*). There the main topic is that Britons will defeat the Russians, but it remains unclear why.

    • Length: 1388 words
  21. 1) In what ways are rebellions caused by the rise of new forms of collective identity? Discuss two cases.

    revolutions provides a complete antidote to the slander that revolutions are the work of tiny handfuls of conspirators and demagogues.'2 In order to explain how the rise of collective identity fits into the framework of revolution, one must first look at why people choose to become part of such groups and why they act more violently within the group dynamic than they would individually. There are a few key psychological concepts which relate to this sense of collective identity and these are completely regardless of time and place, they are simply characteristics of human nature.

    • Length: 2437 words
  22. life in the trenched

    Throughout you day there will be regular inspections from sergeants and officers, so be aware! You will experience a lot of discomfort and the men from the city will find the intense coldness extremely hard to cope with. You will be sleeping on ledges that have been dug into the sides of the trenches. Spare Time Surprisingly, you will have a lot of spare time on your hands and a lot of your time will be spent sitting around doing nothing.

    • Length: 764 words
  23. Free essay

    how has the visible past been shaped by the preservation or neglect of the built heritage of Ireland?

    The commanders, Pádraig Pearse and James Connolly, made their headquarters at the General Post Office. The building was damaged by the British during the rebellion. It was not until later, after Ireland became an independent state (1922) that the Irish Free State started to repair the building. This was a building pronounced to be an important Irish nationalist site, as it could be seen as a building free of the taint of British rule. The original columns still hold the bullet holes and a copy of the Proclamation of the Irish Republic is on display.

    • Length: 1270 words
  24. all the easter rebels needed to do was to provoke the british, and in wartime that would not be difficult. if they succeeded in this basic aim, success of some sort, was guaranteed. discuss

    Although the Rebellion itself was rather feeble, it did have passionate roots. In earlier years, many important figures had united in an effort to solve the 'Irish Question' - the two most prominent of these being Eoin MacNeill and the 'Irish Volunteers' and John Redmond and the 'National Volunteers'. Their general aim was to gain power in Ireland and, with the support of the Irish people, proclaim an independent Irish Republic. James Connolly also sensed the urgency of the situation. He urged rebellion in the summer of 1915. The IRB had to curb his impetuosity in January 1916 by assuring him of its determination to rise at Easter, and by co-opting him

    • Length: 1499 words
  25. Why did Odessa feature so greatly in the lives of the early Zionists?

    This journey was similar to those made by several of his Zionist peers, such as Ahad Ha'am, who moved from a Yeshiva in Belarus after drigting away from his religion, to come to Odessa. Bialik left Odessa in 1921 when his publishing house was closed down by Communist authorities, he then lived in Berlin until 1924, when he moved his publishing house to Tel Aviv, though he died ten years later in 1934 (Almog, 1990: 57). During his time in Odessa, Bialik became a follower of Ahad Ha'am and also became a Hebrew poet, which would eventually lead him to become the national poet of Israel.

    • Length: 2079 words

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • 'The drive for overseas empire by the European Great Powers between 1890 and 1914 was a means of consolidating conservative rule at home.' Discuss with reference to one or more powers.

    "In conclusion it can be seen that there is both a case for and against the argument that Germany's drive for an overseas empire was merely a means to consolidate conservatism domestically. It is true war was the only way to preserve the status quo at home with hope that glory would sway people's opinion back to conservatism. But Germany's armaments policy inclines towards the fact that Germany were always edging towards war from the period of 1890 to 1914. Therefore it can be concluded that Germany did not set about its foreign policy due to issues at home but merely that domestic tensions set the time at which war was to take place. By 1914 pressure in Germany was to such an extent a victorious war was the only outlet. Therefore the drive for overseas empire was just a result of domestic strain but more importantly set up the time frame for it to be carried out."

  • To what extent can Kaiser Wilhelm's reign 1880-1914 be characterised as 'personal rule'?

    "In conclusion, Wilhelm may have appeared and behaved as an omnipotent autocrat, but his claim that "there is only one ruler in the Reich and I am he" was seriously weakened by many factors; the support of his chancellors and advisors appeared to be predominantly superficial and only for personal gain, the Kaiser's limited knowledge of German politics was an obvious weakness along with his general attitude of detachment when it came to domestic and foreign policy; he was more interested in pleasure-seeking then strengthening his position as Kaiser, and as a result it is not possible to characterise his reign as complete 'personal rule'."

  • Made in St Petersburg. Discuss this assessment of the outbreak of general European war in 1914.

    "In conclusion, the German responsibility for the general outbreak of war in 1914 is greater than that of the other European countries. The idea of a world dominated by Germany was deeply ingrained in the minds of the German Government and population and it was this that set Germany on the war path. Despite the fact that Russia and Austria-Hungary performed the initial steps that led to the direct outbreak of war, there is no question that Germany was behind them and had been preparing for war prior to 1914. 'Made in St Petersburg' is therefore a statement that is too focused in laying the blame on an individual country. Although Germany's responsibility was greater than those of the other European powers, without their interference, the different foreign policies and their political and domestic disputes the war could not have occurred in 1914. Collectively, all the European powers hold partial responsibility for the events surrounding 1914. Without the involvement of all the European powers, the war in question may not have occurred."

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