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University Degree: Other Jurisdictions

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  1. Why did heroin appeal to certain groups of young people in the 1980's in Britain?

    Why then, did heroin appeal to certain groups of young people in the 1980's in Britain? In examining why this drug epidemic emerged, it is fundamental to examine the role of enforcement policy in determining drug consumption, and the sudden availability of high-quality heroin in cheap and plentiful supply during this period. One must also consider factors such as the correlation between unemployment, poverty and drug use, and the recreational aspect of heroin as providing an alternative to mainstream culture.

    • Word count: 2666
  2. How Does Gender Impact On Drug Use

    Over fourteen years after the first drug rehabilitation centre for men was opened, a centre for women was opened, and two years after that women were given priority in drug treatment because of the extent of the problem. This problem was highlighted and brought into the public forum because of the plight of "crack babies" - babies born addicted to cocaine because their mother used the drug during pregnancy. In Philadelphia in 1989 one in five babies was born with cocaine in their system.

    • Word count: 2088
  3. Examine the connection between crime and drug use, indicating which criminological theories best assist our understanding of drug related crimes.

    Doctors to aid the healing of a patient prescribe many drugs; alcohol is used for relaxation and sociability. Therefore, many drugs are seen as perfectly normal. There is a very fine line that divides normal and abnormal drug use, and this will vary across societies. Alcohol can be encouraged in some cultures, but prohibited in others. In countries such as Dubai, alcohol is illegal, and being caught drinking by the police anywhere other than a licensed bar can be severely punished. Also, using drugs to treat an illness is seen as perfectly normal, while using the same drugs for non-medical purposes is seen as abnormal.

    • Word count: 3281
  4. International Human Rights Laws - North Korea.

    Documents, Conventions and Customary Law.2 The International Bill of Human Rights has been described by one scholar in the field, David Trubek, as the "core of th[e] body of Human Rights."3 He continues "[t]he U.N. Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights are the fundamental sources of international" human rights law.4 These are the main documents that will be evaluated in this essay. Article 55 of the U.N. Charter states that the United Nations shall promote: higher standards of living, employment, and development; solutions to international economic, social, and health problems; international cultural and educational cooperation; and respect for human rights.

    • Word count: 10819
  5. Cyrillus Kreegi õpetajatöö Läänemaal.

    �levaade Cyrillus Kreegi tegevusest pedagoogina Cyrillus Kreek t��tas pedagoogina j�rgmistes �ppeasutustes:1 1907-1908: Muusika�petaja Haapsalu Linnakoolis 1917-1918: Laulu�petaja Haapsalu Linna T�tarlaste Algkoolis Leemanni kool Harmooniakursused2 1. jaanuar - 1. august 1919: Laulu- ja muusika�petaja L��nemaa �hisg�mnaasiumis 1919-1920: Muusika�petaja Rakvere �petajate Seminaris 1919-1920: Laulu�petaja Virumaa Maakonna Reaalg�mnaasiumis 1920-1921: �petaja Tartu K�rgemas Muusikakoolis 1920-1921: Tartu �petajate Seminar 1921-1932: Laulu- ja muusika�petaja L��nemaa �petajate Seminaris 1928-1938: Laulu- ja muusika�peaja, pasunakoori juht L��nemaa �hisg�mnaasiumis �petaja L��nemaa �hisg�mnaasiumi juures t��tavatel pedagoogilistel kursustel 1931-1937: �petaja Rootsi Erag�mnaasiumis L��nemaa �hisg�mnaasiumi juures 1932-1933: �petaja Haapsalu Linna I Algkoolis 1934-1936: �petaja L��nemaa Keskkoolis 1937/8-1940: �petaja Haapsalu T��stuskoolis 1940-1941: Teoreetiliste ainete �ppej�ud Tallinna Konservatooriumis 1941-1944: �petaja Haapsalu T��stuskoolis 1944-1950: Teoreetiliste ainete �ppej�ud, muusikateooria kateedri juhataja ja 1947.

    • Word count: 4694
  6. Analysis & Comments on Arbital Awards.

    Compositor may not be appealed unless the parties expressly waived their right of appeal in the arbitration agreement, as the provision of the preceding Article 14821 is relevant to public policy, which aims to protect the common expressed (joint volition) desire of the parties of contract".2 Comment The provisions of Article 1482 of French Civil Procedure Code allowed appeal against the Amiable Compositeur award, with the agreement of the parties. Originally this was not allowed. Kuwaiti law does not in general allow appeal against the arbitrator's award unless the parties have provided otherwise in the arbitration agreement - submission agreement or arbitration clause3 - Article 186 of Kuwaiti Procedure Code4.

    • Word count: 8368
  7. 'Cyber space' is completely independent from 'Real space'.

    Not only the relationship but report also deals with the factors making them related and unrelated. The intention is to write this essay in such a way that at one point of time it should make reader wonder what exactly the relationship and effect is there, among both the spaces. In one line the essence of report could be described as- 'Cyber space and Real space- factors which makes them dependent, unique properties which makes them independent, and co-relational aspects which make them interdependent'. Ones approach towards this topic is not going to be theoretical, no it is not going to be practical nor historical, it is going to be the combination of viewpoints of people from real space, articles from virtual.

    • Word count: 5162
  8. Hong Kong

    Flag When Hong Kong was handed back to China, Hong Kong then made their own flag instead of the Union Jack, now it has red background with the Bauhinia-flower on it. The Hong Kong flag is sometimes accompanied with the China flag, which also with a red background with one big yellow star and four other small yellow stars on it. Hong Kong flag China flag Population: The population of Hong Kong is around 6.3 million people. Kowloon is home to 2.2 million people, and Hong Kong Island is home to 1.3 million people, and with the remaining 2.8 million people living in the New Territories.

    • Word count: 3264
  9. What were the attitudes of Great Britain, China and Hong Kong to the hand over of Hong Kong to China in June 1997?

    The British felt that the hand over in 1997 was a poignant day to reflect on the time they spent in Hong Kong. The British were quite upset about the hand over this is represented by the fact that the 'Last Post' was played when the British flag was been taken down. The 'Last Post' is played at funerals' and Remembrance Day and other sad occasions. Chris Patten also portrayed the British attitudes towards the hand over. Chris Patten was the governor of Hong Kong for 5 years and on the day of the hand over he was very emotional,

    • Word count: 1148
  10. State of tort law in India.

    But times are changing and along with time so is torts. People are becoming far more aware of their rights. Hence, the researcher feels that this particular project has great relevance as it will look at the development of damages in torts in our country where torts are just beginning to play a more dominant role. DAMAGES, which are, extremely important in practice, are under investigation by the Law Commission of India . The law commission proposes: "An examination of the principles governing and the effectiveness of the present remedy of damages for monetary and non-monetary loss, with particular regard to personal injury litigation" especially (i)

    • Word count: 5574
  11. Discuss the relationship between the songs of Sam Hui and the identity of Hong Kong people and their worried of coming 1997.

    Sam Hui not only sings the songs HK people enjoy, he wrote the vast majority of them as well. Most will know him from his humorous songs about life in HK, but behind each of these songs are reflections of HK society. His songs were so down-to-earth, describing the working lives of Hong Kong's everyday folk. His music connected with the people across the economic divide, whether they were rich, in the middle or relatively poor. His songs are well accepted by people of all ages. His songs are sung over and over again by today's pop singers (either through live performances, or re-singing them into their respective singles or albums).

    • Word count: 1810
  12. HIV/AIDS, Women's Human Rights and the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS: The principal obstacles for the implementation of the Declaration in Georgia.

    Moreover, no effective monitoring systems for the promotion and protection of human rights of women living with HIV/AIDS have been established by 2003 (as the Declaration required) in Georgia. In this paper I would like to summarize the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS briefly in connection with Georgia, examine it from the point of women's human rights, and then to show what are the principal obstacles in Georgia towards the implementation of enjoyment of Women's Human Rights in general and Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS in particular.

    • Word count: 6776
  13. Summary of the short story "Insignificant moments in the history of Hong Kong" taken from Xu Xi's History's Fiction: stories from the city of Hong Kong.

    Response to the story In this part, I will analyze some features (e.g. narrative perspective of the writer, setting, main character, plot line, atmosphere, leit motif and image,) of the story and how these features make the story personally relevant, intellectually uplifting and life-enhancing for me. 1. Narrative perspective of the writer The story is written by using omniscient point of view, or more precisely, character-bound omniscience. Xu Xi not only looks into the mind of the protagonist (i.e. Lam Yam Kuen), but also the unseen qualities of places and objects (e.g.

    • Word count: 2200
  14. Apartheid in South Africa.

    they would still have to live in appalling conditions with a lot of other Blacks. This means that there was a lot of Blacks in a small area, but as a percentage of employed Blacks there was a very small amount. These conditions were introduced by the South African government to make a carefree country were the Whites didn't have to worry about a Black conspiracy. But instead of this happening it caused more of a dilemma. The Blacks thought the Whites were plotting to get rid of them and the Whites thought the opposite.

    • Word count: 781
  15. This essay focuses on three recently published newspaper articles concerning racism in South African politics.

    Today structural racism is unconstitutional and radical measures have been taken to abolish all forms of it. Yet its legacy lives on, because through the implementation of structural racism attitudinal racism was born. Attitudinal racism is the way a person sees fit to view, judge and treat a person based on their race. According to Prof. Gouws "Strukturele rassisme het houdingsrassisme bevoder met as sy aanverwante stereotipes en voordele van swart mense wat minderwaardig en onmenswaardig is" (2003). Attitudinal racism is a lot more difficult to extinguish.

    • Word count: 1398
  16. Domestic Violence - changes of law through history.

    Couples were left a lone to sort out their differences except in cases involving serious injury. In 1975 the police considered the powers they had were quite adequate to deal with the problem. 'The offences against the person Act 1861, which in the main covers the whole field of this subject, has been in operation for many years now and the penalties and powers under that and other acts appear amply adequate.' (Select Committee on Violence in Marriage, 1975 p377, cited in Pahl) Even as late as the 1980s (Pahl, p115), noted the police response was often a chauvinistic one.

    • Word count: 2130
  17. Does prison meet the needs of prisoners?

    Heavily pregnant women were transported to court or Mother and Baby Units (MBU'S) in unsafe 'sweatboxes' or security vans and there was minimal access to any means of solving outside problems, such as childcare, accommodation and dealing with social services. Almost 50% of women were primary carers before imprisonment (National Prison Survey 1991as cited in Devlin 1998) contrasted with 32% of men. The Howard League for Penal Reform has long campaigned against the mothers of young children being sent to jail, except in the cases of high risk women, and then only as a very last resort.

    • Word count: 1932
  18. Constitutional Equality in Singapore. The predominant purpose of unequal treatment under the Constitution is not to achieve substantive equality, but to preserve multiculturalism and meritocracy.

    There are various historical and policy-based reasons for the unequal treatment of minorities under the Constitution. II. Formal equality and Art 12 To justify the need for unequal constitutional treatment of minorities, the theoretical underpinnings and practical implications of formal equality must first be examined. A. Formal equality A formal conception of equality, often represented by the Aristotelian axiom that like cases should be treated alike has been described as a ?general axiom of rational behaviour?.[4] However, a discussion of the empty concept of formal equality is meaningless without any context.

    • Word count: 4288
  19. Scandalous trademarks. In Australia there has been an increase in the number of trade mark registrations which contain potentially offensive material.

    The main safeguard for potentially offensive and scandalous trademarks is Section 42(a) of the Trade Marks Act 1995 (Cth) (The Act)[3], which provides for rejection of a trade mark for registration if the proposed mark contains or consists of scandalous matter. But the real question is what exactly qualifies as consisting of ?scandalous material?, when is it too scandalous and going over the line, especially since what was held to be scandalous 10 to 20 plus years ago, is probably not viewed in the same context in current times. What is a Trademark and why even use them?

    • Word count: 2982
  20. Inefficiencies in Hong Kong Minority Shareholders Protection Provisions

    The minority could only seek redress from statutory protection or common law protection by carrying out stringent procedures. The following sections will mainly discuss and analyze Section 168A and Part IVAA (ss 168BA-BK). . Section 168A According to s.168A, any member could apply to the court for order under s.168A if affairs are being or have been conducted unfairly prejudicial to one or more members (Company Ordinance). The unfairness and prejudice should coexist as supported by case Re Taiwa Land Investment Co Ltd (1981). However, there is a debate about the scope of unfairness and prejudice. The concepts of these words are not defined in Ordinance or judicially.

    • Word count: 1178
  21. The Execution of Wanda Jean. Wanda Jean Allens mental defects, which included frontal lobe brain damage and mental retardation, were never discussed nor considered in her criminal murder trial of 1989.

    She was subsequently convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to death in 1989. Wanda Jean's access to judicial procedure was not applied fairly. To begin, Allen had many factors working against her: poverty-stricken, little access to education, black, lesbian, and a resident of Oklahoma. Oklahoma, located right smack in the center of the Bible Belt, "hated homosexuality."[2] Because Wanda Jean was considered to be "living in sin"[3], the jury that sentenced her to death likely placed very little value on her life. The law is influenced by social conditions and societal ideas. Wanda Jean's jury was anything but impartial: the all-white, Bible Belt Southerners, likely failed to relate to the black, lesbian, ?murderous villain? presented before them.

    • Word count: 787
  22. Unilateral Divorce in Muslim Law

    unilateral repudiation or cutting off of the marital tie.[6] Use of talaq is a power available exclusively to the husband, although it possible for the husband to delegate the power to pronounce the talaq to some other person, or indeed the wife, who then uses the so-called ?delegated talaq? (talaq-i-tafwid) to free herself from the marital bond. In the classical Muslim law on talaq, the consent of the wife is not required and the pronouncement or declaration of the talaq is extra-judicial and in no way subject to any external check.

    • Word count: 8160
  23. Discussion of two articles concerning Australian anti-terrorist surveillance laws.

    Throughout extract 1, Mike Head (2012) presents the idea that the Labour government is pushing for ?unprecedented powers? to intercept all Internet communication calls, in a similar line to the US and Europe. He continues by explaining that the current taping of phones would be extended to VOIP (Skype), and that not handing over passwords would be seen as an offence (Head, M, 2012). Mike points out the acts ?terrorism act?, comprises of a number of these attributes, such as phone taping and spying, thus there is no justification in expanding powers and the expansion of monetary funds to government agencies that are essentially already in tact.

    • Word count: 2309
  24. Reasonable Forseeability in Australian Tort Law

    The Civil Liability Act?s (CLA) distinct definition of pure mental injury[5] as separate from consequential harm reflects the legal system?s affirmation that ?something more? than the test of reasonable foreseeability is required within this area[6]. The judicial dichotomy between physical and psychiatric injuries reflects the historical and political context surrounding this issue, in particular the court?s scepticism regarding the legitimacy of nervous shock as class of injury[7]. Such scepticism can be traced back to the court?s original feminist interpretation of psychiatric injury[8] in addition to their perpetual ?fear of fakery?[9] in regards to fraudulent claims for psychiatric injury.

    • Word count: 1585
  25. Australian Corporation Law Case.It is necessary to determine that whether Finance Pty Ltd is a separate legal entity or not in this case

    [2]From this case, many legal ramifications has been put forward: distinction between private and company debts, distinction between private and company assets and the company can contract with its members and be liable in tort to a member. In addition, a company has the power to do the followings: own and dispose of property and other assets, enter into contracts and sue or be sued. Thus, Finance Pty Ltd is a separate legal entity that it owns its debts and assets.

    • Word count: 1774

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