• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

History of Computer Architecture and Operating System.

Extracts from this document...


CCM 2050         Page         5/10/2007

History of Computer Architecture and Operating System

Humans do not have the ability to solve all problems, and even if they do, not as fast as a computer can do.

A digital computer is a machine that follows algorithms written by humans. Following an algorithm means solving a problem by carrying out instructions of how to solve it.

The earliest electronic digital computers were launched in the 1940s. These machines had no operating system. The programs had to be entered one bit at a time on rows of mechanical switches.

The language programs of the machine were entered on punch cards, and the programming process were speed by developing the assembly languages.

The first Operating System was implemented in 1950s by the General Motors Research Laboratories. The systems were called single – stream batch processing systems because the programs and data submitted were in groups or batches. An Operating System is the software that controls the hardware. The hardware includes processors, storage, Input/Output devices, communications devices and data.

Hardware only specify the physical devices that a computer uses to accomplish a task, provides computer power, but cannot use it. To make the power that the hardware provides useful, an Operating System is needed because it makes this power usable. Operating System, which are resource managers, manage the computer hardware and makes them conveniently available to the users.

...read more.


In the 1970s, the experimental time-sharing systems of 1960s were evolved into solid commercial products. Around this time, Personal Computers (PCs) and microprocessor technology started their early stage.

The TCT/IP communications standards/protocols, which are still in use as the Internet protocol, became widely used mainly in military and universities, since the United States increased the communications between computer systems. In consideration of security problems that occurred, the concept of “encryption” of data became highly important.

1980s was the time of the evolution of microprocessor technology. Through this time, most of the computers were single-processor systems.

The aim of the hardware design was to have processors to perform as many instructions per second as possible, and the aim of the software design was to share that processor effectively among jobs in order to ensure maximum utilization.

Furthermore, because of the maximum usage of personal computers, desktop computers were built to enable users to work individually.
To make the work much easier, application software programs such as word-processors, spreadsheets, database – and graphics packages were published. This took also an important part in the personal computer revolution.

The use of computers increased and almost everyone was able to use one effectively.

Computing became a distributed trend that allowed the execution of parcelled sub-computations on other processors, for example in computer networks, or other multiprocessor systems.

...read more.


The Graphical User Interface in comparison, displays a pleasant atmosphere with the options of setting wallpapers and screensavers that one can select as per his or her wish, the desired atmosphere. It also provides easy task performance by containing colour graphics. The user just need to click on the images that indicates the program or task he wants the system to perform and it will open up for him. There is no need to remember commands.

Furthermore, looking at the white fonts on a black background all the time will be boring and depressing as well, whereas in a Graphical User Interface you can see a lot more in colour.  

Bibliography & References


John L. Hennessy & David A. Patterson, “Computer Architecture a quantitative approach”, 2nd Edition, 1996, published by Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc, San Francisco, California

H. M. Deitel,  “Operating Systems”, 2nd Edition, 2000, by Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd.

Andrew S. Tanenbaum, “Structured Computer Organization”, 4th Edition,

1999, by Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi








Gasthurie Kanagachandran                                                                                      2035883

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Computer Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Computer Science essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Cisc v risc. To begin this assignment , I will outline the definition ...

    The number of bits in a instruction varies from the data being processed. Instructions can be grouped by category , -memory access: Accessing the memory or transferring between registers. -Aritmetic operations: This includes addition, substraction, division , multiplication. -logic operations: Such as , AND,OR,NOT , EXCLUSIVE NOT etc...

  2. Traffic Light Simulation and Machine Code Program.

    It has a value of -128 if the byte is signed (positive and negative numbers). The MSB has a value that depends on how wide in bits the data storage location is. Multiplexing Combining two or more data flows onto a single carrying medium.

  1. Information systems development literature review. Since the 1960s Methodologies, Frameworks, Approaches and CASE ...

    This CASE tool was satisfactory to illustrate each input, process and output required however, to combine these elements to effectively generate the database caused immense difficulty. Due to the functionalities and limitations of this tool my capabilities were minimised hindering the creation of this database.

  2. Create an online catalogue system that specialises in children's toys and enables users to ...

    because it allows users to integrate data from multiple sources (Orfali et al 1996). It is also possible to modify a tier without affecting any of the other tiers. Scalability is increased because the middle tier can share database connections across clients and so the application server can be deployed

  1. Develop a Puzzle Website for users of three different age groups, Kids, Teenagers and ...

    our own game, but because of the demands of college and outside obligations this was not possible. 7.5 Testing the System Testing is an area that we could of done a better more thoroughly; as it was left to the last minute, thankfully we did unit test the different parts

  2. Introduction to Computer Forensics

    It is imperative that established forensic procedures are followed. These procedures include, but are not limited to, four phases: collection, examination, analysis, and reporting. Although this guide concentrates on the collection phase, the nature of the other three phases and what happens in each are also important to understand.

  1. The project explains various algorithms that are exercised to recognize the characters present on ...

    Chapter 6 presents the challenges, limitations and conclusions derived from this project along with the future work perspective. References are provided in Reference section. The program code for simulation and hardware implementation are given in Appendix section. Chapter 2 BASIC INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL IMAGING 2.1 Digital Imaging In digital imaging,

  2. Geometric Brownian Motion. The aim of this project is to gain an understanding ...

    > The user will finally be able to analyse its chosen stock and see whether it is risky or not by the outputs obtained. Chapter 4: Design implementation 4.1 Improvements from the design stage During the implementation stage of the software a few changes have been made in order to improve the initial design.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work