• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Human Emotion and Motivation - Biological Basis of Behavior.

Extracts from this document...


Human Emotion and Motivation

Biological Basis of Behavior


        Emotions and motivations are a vital influence on everyday human life. Emotions are something that everyone experiences and understands, at least in simple terms. In addition, motivation is also something that is understood in laymen terms. Most people would probably describe it as the force that makes them work extra hours to earn a promotion or stay up all night to finish a paper so they are able to earn good marks. Humans are constantly feeling emotions and consistently experiencing a motivating force. However, the actual cause of what makes someone afraid or what causes one to eat food is an area that is only beginning to be understood by scientists. Theories have been developed and altered on a consistent basis, but still there are no definitive answers to these questions. A brief history of those past theories is explored for the purpose of giving insight into the modern theories that scientists have developed. This paper will then explain that the limbic system’s existence in the human brain is questionable, however, the limbic system will still be referred to as a system in the human brain to create consistency and understanding.

...read more.


        This paper will continue to use the term “limbic system” for simplicity and constancy reasons. Moreover, not every function in the limbic system is involved with emotion or motivation (LeDoux, 1998). The brainstem, hippocampal system, and amygdala are key factors in emotion (Martin, 1998). The limbic system is also known for being responsible for motivated actions such as fleeing, feeding, fighting, and sexual behavior. Other major parts of the limbic system include the mammillary body, fornix, cingulate cortex, septum, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb (Pinel, 2003). The amygdala and hypothalamus are two structures that often receive much attention when it comes to emotion and motivation. The amygdala is a vital element in the production of fear. It also assists in maintaining anxiety and many other emotions (Martin, 1998). This structure has been proven to be an essential link in the emotion processes, but not the limbic system (Pinel, 2003). Unilateral or bilateral damage to the amygdala has proven a severe handicap in patients trying to recognize the expression of fear and possibly other emotions (Martin, 1998). Likewise, the hypothalamus is a key concept in the Cannon-Bard theory, which links it as an essential component of the rage response. They discovered a raged response could only be produced with extremely intense stimuli and even then, the results were not typical (LeDoux, 1998).

...read more.



        Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

        Damasio, A.R. & Hoesen, W.V (1983). Emotional disturbances associated with focal lesions of the limbic frontal lobes. In K.M. Heilman & P. Satz (Eds). Neuropsycholgoy of Human Emotion (Vol. 1, pp85-108). New York: The Guilford Press.

        LeDoux, J. (1999). The emotional brain. Phoenix: Orion Books Ltd.

Pinel, J.P.J. (2003). Biopsychology. (5th Ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

        Martin, G. (1998). Human neuropsychology. London: Prentice Hall Europe.

        Parkinson, B. & Colman, A.M. (1995). Emotion and motivation. London: Longman

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Computer Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Computer Science essays

  1. Papez (1937) first postulated that there were a collection of structures within the brain, ...

    MacLean (1985) conceptualized the brain in terms of a tripartite, evolutionary hierarchical structure, comprising the 'primitive reptilian' brain, the more elaborate 'old mammalian' and the most recent and advanced 'new mammalian' brain. It was the 'old mammalian,'(or 'Paleomammalian') brain he stated, which comprised the structures of the limbic system.

  2. Implementation of Path Finding Techniques in Homeland Security Robots

    3.9 List Data Type The data type used to store the patches was the list data type in Steve. Using the list data type it is possible to keep a list of other variables of any type including other lists.

  1. What is research?

    subject of research is what we call knowledge, whether we consider it as static, archived, or as novel theory or the new presentation of information. Knowledge can be defined as: A: Familiarity, awareness, or understanding gained through experience or study.

  2. NCC International Advanced Diploma in Computer ...

    For example, Red Hat Linux (one type of UNIX) release 6.0 (Shedwig) Kernel 2.2.5-15, can be updated to kernel 2.4.20 to enhance the system stability and security. Procedure difference among UNIX world The update kernel procedures for each UNIX distribution and kernel are different for different UNIX platform such as HPUX, IBM-AIX, DEBIAN, SUSE and RED HAT and so on.

  1. The purpose of this project is to discuss the issues associated with the deployment ...

    Because of fundamental limitations of power, wireless data networks tend to have: Less bandwidth More latency Less connection stability Less predictable availability Furthermore, as bandwidth increases, the handset's power consumption also increases which further taxes the already limited battery life of a mobile device.

  2. Security in a computing world.

    The TCP header format is shown in figure below. Figure 1.3 - The TCP Header [3] 1.3.1 Explanation of TCP Header The header of every TCP packet includes two port numbers: a source port and a destination port. These 16 bit numbers are like little doors on the system where data can be sent out or received.

  1. So in order to understand what the main areas where organisation should be aware ...

    3) Non-ECHO ICMP: Blocking incoming ICMP ECHO requests is not enough. We can use non-ECHO ICMP protocols for gathering various information about a system. Other tools: We can use the icmpush & icmpquery tools to perform this kind of scanning. Advantage: Many firewalls are configured to block only ICMP ECHO traffic,

  2. Artificial Intelligence as a Positive and Negative Factors in Human Life.

    In first half of twentieth century, technological advances of AI caused a movement of workers from agricultural to industrial production. In other second half, they brought about another movement from industrial production to service. By the way, AI has built a high level of acceptance and trust to take a step into the service sectors as service workers.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work