• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Human Emotion and Motivation - Biological Basis of Behavior.

Extracts from this document...


Human Emotion and Motivation

Biological Basis of Behavior


        Emotions and motivations are a vital influence on everyday human life. Emotions are something that everyone experiences and understands, at least in simple terms. In addition, motivation is also something that is understood in laymen terms. Most people would probably describe it as the force that makes them work extra hours to earn a promotion or stay up all night to finish a paper so they are able to earn good marks. Humans are constantly feeling emotions and consistently experiencing a motivating force. However, the actual cause of what makes someone afraid or what causes one to eat food is an area that is only beginning to be understood by scientists. Theories have been developed and altered on a consistent basis, but still there are no definitive answers to these questions. A brief history of those past theories is explored for the purpose of giving insight into the modern theories that scientists have developed. This paper will then explain that the limbic system’s existence in the human brain is questionable, however, the limbic system will still be referred to as a system in the human brain to create consistency and understanding.

...read more.


        This paper will continue to use the term “limbic system” for simplicity and constancy reasons. Moreover, not every function in the limbic system is involved with emotion or motivation (LeDoux, 1998). The brainstem, hippocampal system, and amygdala are key factors in emotion (Martin, 1998). The limbic system is also known for being responsible for motivated actions such as fleeing, feeding, fighting, and sexual behavior. Other major parts of the limbic system include the mammillary body, fornix, cingulate cortex, septum, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb (Pinel, 2003). The amygdala and hypothalamus are two structures that often receive much attention when it comes to emotion and motivation. The amygdala is a vital element in the production of fear. It also assists in maintaining anxiety and many other emotions (Martin, 1998). This structure has been proven to be an essential link in the emotion processes, but not the limbic system (Pinel, 2003). Unilateral or bilateral damage to the amygdala has proven a severe handicap in patients trying to recognize the expression of fear and possibly other emotions (Martin, 1998). Likewise, the hypothalamus is a key concept in the Cannon-Bard theory, which links it as an essential component of the rage response. They discovered a raged response could only be produced with extremely intense stimuli and even then, the results were not typical (LeDoux, 1998).

...read more.



        Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

        Damasio, A.R. & Hoesen, W.V (1983). Emotional disturbances associated with focal lesions of the limbic frontal lobes. In K.M. Heilman & P. Satz (Eds). Neuropsycholgoy of Human Emotion (Vol. 1, pp85-108). New York: The Guilford Press.

        LeDoux, J. (1999). The emotional brain. Phoenix: Orion Books Ltd.

Pinel, J.P.J. (2003). Biopsychology. (5th Ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

        Martin, G. (1998). Human neuropsychology. London: Prentice Hall Europe.

        Parkinson, B. & Colman, A.M. (1995). Emotion and motivation. London: Longman

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Computer Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Computer Science essays

  1. The marketing research process.

    Open-ended questions and pilot testing can also be useful in determining the target market and who should be sampled in the final questionnaire, this must be considered carefully as it can affect the layout, type and distribution of the questionnaire.

  2. What is research?

    B: The sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned. C: Awareness or understanding esp. of an act, a fact, or the truth b: awareness that a fact or circumstance probably exists; broadly: Actual knowledge 1: direct and clear awareness (as of a fact or condition.)

  1. So in order to understand what the main areas where organisation should be aware ...

    Port scanning is clearly unethical without the express permission of the port owner. Port scanning, as with many other vulnerability tests, is a technique that may be employed by hackers, and should alarm the security group of a potential attempted penetration.

  2. The project explains various algorithms that are exercised to recognize the characters present on ...

    Color Space 5 3. LICENSE PLATE CHARACTER RECOGNITION ALGORITHMS...............6 3.1 Design Approach 6 3.2 Design Overview 6 3.3 Algorithm Description 8 3.3.1 Image Processing 8 3.3.2 Defragmentation 9 3.3.3 Resizing 9 3.3.4 Four Quadrant Algorithm 12 3.3.5 Template Matching 14 4.

  1. NCC International Advanced Diploma in Computer ...

    Very often, the kernel was specified (or chosen) by UNIX developer such as HP, IBM, SUN Solaris and so on. Every UNIX has their default kernel, it usually not needed to update if bugs were not hit. Similarly to Microsoft Windows, the UNIX distribution referred to the software that were

  2. What according to Putnam are the issues at stake in assessing the question as ...

    The first point Putnam makes about reference by means of this example is that reference must be beyond mere similarity and that similarity is not a sufficient condition for something to represent something else. Putnam then goes on to raise the question of intention.

  1. The purpose of this project is to discuss the issues associated with the deployment ...

    45 Figure 11 Data Flow Diagram (WAP Banking Application) 64 Figure 12 WAP Gateway (www.realwow.com) 66 Figure 13 Microsoft Access Database (Service Pack 2) 67 Figure 14 Nokia Toolkit 3.1 71 Figure 15 Photoshop 7.0 71 Figure 16 Editplus 72 Figure 17 Dreamweaver MX 72 Figure 18 Fireworks 73 Figure 19 HTML 2 ANYCODE 73 Figure 20 Java SDK 1.4 (www.java.sun.com)

  2. To What Extent Can Emotion Be Viewed As A Biological Phenomenon?

    One is a slow-moving circuit that travels from the thalamus, to the cortex, to the amygdala, and includes a detailed analysis of sensory information. It triggers a rapid response in threatening situations, and can be valuable in ensuring survival. In contrast, the other is a fast-flowing circuit that travels straight

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work