• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Human Emotion and Motivation - Biological Basis of Behavior.

Extracts from this document...


Human Emotion and Motivation

Biological Basis of Behavior


        Emotions and motivations are a vital influence on everyday human life. Emotions are something that everyone experiences and understands, at least in simple terms. In addition, motivation is also something that is understood in laymen terms. Most people would probably describe it as the force that makes them work extra hours to earn a promotion or stay up all night to finish a paper so they are able to earn good marks. Humans are constantly feeling emotions and consistently experiencing a motivating force. However, the actual cause of what makes someone afraid or what causes one to eat food is an area that is only beginning to be understood by scientists. Theories have been developed and altered on a consistent basis, but still there are no definitive answers to these questions. A brief history of those past theories is explored for the purpose of giving insight into the modern theories that scientists have developed. This paper will then explain that the limbic system’s existence in the human brain is questionable, however, the limbic system will still be referred to as a system in the human brain to create consistency and understanding.

...read more.


        This paper will continue to use the term “limbic system” for simplicity and constancy reasons. Moreover, not every function in the limbic system is involved with emotion or motivation (LeDoux, 1998). The brainstem, hippocampal system, and amygdala are key factors in emotion (Martin, 1998). The limbic system is also known for being responsible for motivated actions such as fleeing, feeding, fighting, and sexual behavior. Other major parts of the limbic system include the mammillary body, fornix, cingulate cortex, septum, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb (Pinel, 2003). The amygdala and hypothalamus are two structures that often receive much attention when it comes to emotion and motivation. The amygdala is a vital element in the production of fear. It also assists in maintaining anxiety and many other emotions (Martin, 1998). This structure has been proven to be an essential link in the emotion processes, but not the limbic system (Pinel, 2003). Unilateral or bilateral damage to the amygdala has proven a severe handicap in patients trying to recognize the expression of fear and possibly other emotions (Martin, 1998). Likewise, the hypothalamus is a key concept in the Cannon-Bard theory, which links it as an essential component of the rage response. They discovered a raged response could only be produced with extremely intense stimuli and even then, the results were not typical (LeDoux, 1998).

...read more.



        Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.

        Damasio, A.R. & Hoesen, W.V (1983). Emotional disturbances associated with focal lesions of the limbic frontal lobes. In K.M. Heilman & P. Satz (Eds). Neuropsycholgoy of Human Emotion (Vol. 1, pp85-108). New York: The Guilford Press.

        LeDoux, J. (1999). The emotional brain. Phoenix: Orion Books Ltd.

Pinel, J.P.J. (2003). Biopsychology. (5th Ed). Boston: Allyn & Bacon

        Martin, G. (1998). Human neuropsychology. London: Prentice Hall Europe.

        Parkinson, B. & Colman, A.M. (1995). Emotion and motivation. London: Longman

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Computer Science section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Computer Science essays

  1. Implementation of Path Finding Techniques in Homeland Security Robots

    sensors. These sensors are integrated with a low power, low data rate radio and associated battery and antenna, which communicate at ranges of up to four hundred meters. P-nodes perform functions such as target detection, simple target classification, and simple Line-of Bearing (LOB)

  2. NCC International Advanced Diploma in Computer ...

    For example, Red Hat Linux (one type of UNIX) release 6.0 (Shedwig) Kernel 2.2.5-15, can be updated to kernel 2.4.20 to enhance the system stability and security. Procedure difference among UNIX world The update kernel procedures for each UNIX distribution and kernel are different for different UNIX platform such as HPUX, IBM-AIX, DEBIAN, SUSE and RED HAT and so on.

  1. This report will discuss the evolution and history of two RISC Processors, SPARC and ...

    Some instructions are handled by the Control Unit itself, so if the instruction says 'jump to location 2749', the value of 2749 is written to the PC so that the processor executes that instruction next. Many instructions involve the arithmetic and logic unit (ALU).

  2. This paper will propose a testing strategy for Internet E-Commerce applications and assess its ...

    The framework will help to construct the detailed test stages from the test types. 7.1 Seven Categories of Tests To address the risks of the e-business project, there are 24 distinct test types, each of which addresses a different risk area.

  1. What is research?

    insofar as can be described based on the trends and potentialities of current prospects of both human capacity and technological innovation (I.T.) 1.1.2 Further Definitions As it stands, some background philosophical concepts must be defined as general precursors to both research and any description thereof.

  2. Security in a computing world.

    Now we have a frame which can be transmitted across the link. Upon receiving the data, the destination system opens all the headers, layer by layer. [4] Figure 1.2 - Adding headers (and a trailer) to move data through the communications stack and across the network.

  1. The purpose of this project is to discuss the issues associated with the deployment ...

    23 Figure 6 Optional Dual WAP Stack Support (www.wapforum.com) 24 Figure 7 Architecture Diagram (Gulliver) 29 Figure 8 Rich Picture Example from (Wood-Harper) 40 Figure 9 Rich Picture Example a political cartoon from Bruce Petty (an Australian systems cartoonist) 41 Figure 10 Rapid Application Development Diagram (http://www.bgsu.edu) 45 Figure 11 Data Flow Diagram (WAP Banking Application)

  2. Artificial Intelligence as a Positive and Negative Factors in Human Life.

    In 1961, according to Life magazine, an Ohio sausage producer had installed a room-sized machine. This is a start of AI era in production. In 1968, there was the first demonstration of programme could gather uncategorized information together by using Bayersian logic.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work