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University Degree: Behavioural Science

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  1. Hormones and Heredity

    When the thyroid overproduces thyroxin, a person will experience several symptoms, some being insomnia, fatigue, and depression. On the contrary when the thyroid does not produce adequate amounts of thyroxin, one will want to sleep all of the time. The pineal gland is a tiny gland located in the middle of the brain. This gland secretes the hormone melatonin. Melatonin regulates the sleep-wake cycle; is this hormones is unstable a person can experience feelings of "jet-lag". A person's pituitary gland is known as the "master gland" and has the largest effect on the body of all the endocrine glands.

    • Word count: 1298
  2. Otitis Media in Aboriginal Communities

    Unfortunately many Aborigines' are not aware that they suffer from diabetes and are only diagnosed with the disease after they have seen a doctor for another medical reason.2 Therefore, this figure of 6% is grossly understated and the true figure is estimated to be in between 10% to 30%.1,2 Another disturbing trend for Indigenous Australian's is that diabetes (especially type II) begins earlier in life and to a greater extent. Between the ages of 25 to 34 years old, 4.3 percent of the Indigenous population have diabetes compared to only 0.6 percent of the non-Indigenous population.1,2 However, it is not

    • Word count: 1567
  3. Clinicians have ethical codes, should scientists have them too?

    Hereby, issues such as justification and lawfulness of research, scientific objectivity, societal issues, methods of operation and good practice would be brought to the fore. It must however be recognised that the attempt to cognize the world lies fundamental to the core objective of the practicing scientist and to limit this, through the enforcement of rigid codes, would be to undermine the scientific pursuit of knowledge. As such, it is apparent that whilst the implementation of ethical codes would provide a scaffold for moral and good practice, they must be both malleable and flexible, with an element of precision, so as not to either become the limiting factor upon scientific development or become bland and generic.

    • Word count: 1970
  4. schizophrenia

    characteristic of catatonic schizophrenia, disorganized speech and or behavior, also known as 'word salad' in which the patient will ramble on incoherently about delusional thoughts he or she has, as well as the flat affect. The flat affect, also known as the blunted affect, is the term that describes the lack of emotional reactions to certain situations, in other words it is the reduced, or the absence all together of, emotional expressiveness. Throughout history there have been accounts of schizophrenia-like syndromes that report, irrational, uncontrolled, and incoherent behavior.

    • Word count: 1396
  5. Biomedical models

    Consultation between patient and physician were seen as unnecessary as the illnesses were self-evident. The medical model that developed from this view was the predominant model for understanding and treating illnesses for over a century in Western societies. It only focused on the root causes of disease and illness by focusing on the aetiology and the pathologic processes involved in disease and did not take into account any social, psychological and behavioural dimensions of illness. Research that was undertaken was primarily focused on faulty genes, bacteria and viruses, assuming that these could be identified, classified and then be removed by treating with the appropriate medical disciplines.

    • Word count: 1643
  6. How far did the sick rely on written communications in looking for remedies in England, 1375-1640?

    The extent to which written communication was involved in this interaction varied. Underlying nearly all of these transactions is a religious element too, with prayer or other religious means providing a hope for a remedy. "Women were responsible for most of the routine health care on offer in late medieval England" (Rawcliffe 1995) and in this role "were expected to prescribe for and nurse relatives, friends and neighbours" (Beier 1987). All women grew herbs in their gardens or in pots, and were supposed to know when and how to use them to make remedies.

    • Word count: 1940
  7. ARE HOMEOPATHIC REMEDIES ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATIVES TO PHARMACEUTICAL DRUGS?

    Homeopathic remedies are safe, as a whole, compared to conventional pharmaceutical medicines. "It is widely acknowledged that homeopathic medicines are so small in dose that they are generally recognized as safe (Ullman 153)." Additionally, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes that the vast majority of homeopathic medicines are safe enough to warrant their classification as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs (Ullman 153). There are regulations for homeopathic remedies here in the United States, which are ignored by many critics. Homeopathic remedies are regulated by the Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia of the United States (HPUS)

    • Word count: 1282
  8. Do the Big Five Theories of Personality Do Full Justice To The Complexities of Human Behaviour

    Later Eysenck added Psychoticism to this list of traits. Eysenck argued that peoples placing on the scale was because of inherited differences in their nervous system and brains (Bernstein 2003). This model laid down the groundwork for the Big Five Model of Personality. The Big Five model is "based on a lexical approach to personality it uses natural language adjectives and theoretically based personality questionnaires" (Cox , Borger, Taylor, Fuentes & Ross 1999) to study personality. This model was made by looking at thousands of adjectives taking out synonyms, slang and uncommon or complicated words and reducing the descriptions into five main traits and a number of secondary traits that come from these.

    • Word count: 1448
  9. Freud and Jung

    Within the scope of analytic psychology, there exist two essential tenets. The first is the system in which sensations and feelings are analyzed and listed by type. The second has to do with a way to analyze the psyche that follows Jung's concepts. It stresses a group unconscious and a mystical factor in the growth of the personal unconscious. It is unlike the system described by Sigmund Freud. Analytic psychology does not stress the importance of sexual factors on early mental growth. The best understanding of Carl Jung and his views regarding the collective unconscious are best understood in understanding the man and his influences.

    • Word count: 1420
  10. Sex and Health in the Middle AgesSeveral centuries ago, in the population's mind, as well as for Jewish, and the Christians and/or Muslims, everything was about religion and God

    The diverse traditions and religions truly affected the way people of the Middle Ages perceived reproduction. This is proven by the fact that in some civilizations reproduction was seen as a divine action though, in others, it was considered to be bad and evil (Wiesner p.132). The three major Western religions, Judaism, Islam and Christianity, all share some common beliefs about reproduction (Wiesner p.132). Being monotheists, each of them believe that reproduction has been established by God in the old testament when He said, in the genesis, "Be fruitful and multiply" (Genesis in Wiesner p.132).

    • Word count: 1098
  11. What is known about how people perceive, take and communicate risks?

    Risk perception can be distorted depending on the assessor of the risk. However research has illustrated that both lay people and expert's assessment of risk involve human judgement and are subjective however experts perception are viewed as more objective. Slovic (1979) concluded that lay people perception of risk are related to more so to 'Dread Risk' and how widespread it effects, showing a high correlation of factors 1 and 3 where appraisals are made cognitively, whereas experts concentrate on the annual fatalities of the risk and make appraisals normatively looking at statistics.

    • Word count: 1745
  12. The failures of Freud and Psychoanalysis.

    taken its place as one of the classic reports in the psychiatric literature.3 The pseudonym that Freud gave to the patient Ida Bauer, Dora, has become commonly associated whenever Freud is mentioned. In his recounting of the Dora case, Freud is surprisingly frank about his inability to deal with his patient effectively. The Dora case morphed from a case that was supposed to strengthen Freud's psychoanalytical theory into an example of the failure on the part of both Freud and psychoanalysis.

    • Word count: 1643
  13. Does alternative medicine present a challenge to biomedicine?

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been set into groups but it is hard to define where each should go. A report by the House of Lords Select Committee for Science and Technology (2000), divides each therapy into groups ranging from those with a recognised research base, those starting to accumulate a research base, to those with no evidence-based research. There has been an increase in the use of complementary medicine in the fields of those grouped into the researched-based category such as acupuncture, homeopathy, chiropractic, and osteopathy, due to a consistent and coherent epistemology.

    • Word count: 1038
  14. Recovering The Soul and Reinventing Medicine and Healing beyond the Body - Dr. Dossey.

    One of the great flaws in Dr. Dossey's arguments for the alternative medicine is that he fails to understand or acknowledge the fact that the "alternative" medicine maybe a new term but very often it is not a new concept nor a new set of practices. It has been around and has been practiced for many centuries or even millenniums. He cries about the modern medicine taking over Western culture and civilization and marginalizing the so called "mind and soul medicine" but does not mention the fact that the modern medicine took over the western and later on other civilizations

    • Word count: 1650
  15. What is known about how people perceive, take and communicate risks?

    Participants in his study estimated the death rates from 40 hazards using the death rate from car accidents as a point of reference. Slovic found that participants overestimated deaths from infrequent causes but underestimated deaths from infrequent causes. When participants were given a statistical frequency of death and a choice between two hazards which it could represent, they attributed more deaths to the more salient hazard, for example more deaths to murder than to diabetes, when in fact death rates for both of these hazards are the same.

    • Word count: 1921
  16. Were Arab doctors better than European doctors in the middle ages?

    The Arabs saved and kept few of the books written by Galen and Hippocrates and translated them. The medical knowledge was rescued from total loss. Arab countries at this point had now more and better medical knowledge then European countries but as the middle ages went by, the Europeans will soon catch up. It was religion that mainly hindered medical knowledge in Europe but in the Middle East, Islamic Religious influence was actually helping the course of medicine as Islam encouraged Hygiene and Cleanliness. This was done by bathing once a week, brushing teeth, trimming nails, keep homes clean and keep healthy and sick people apart and so on but only thing that hindered medical knowledge due to Islam was that they weren't allowed to dissect the body.

    • Word count: 1053
  17. "Describe the developments of Medicine Through Time"

    The ancient Egyptians were able to make considerable progress by writing down what they had found and observed so they could pass their cures on to other people. They were also able to examine what they saw and diagnose proposed cures. The only draw back with this being that it was forbidden to dissect any parts of the body needed for the after life! The development of medicine in ancient Greece followed a similar kind of pattern. Philosopher scientists such as Hippocrates began to come up with rational explanations, based on observations.

    • Word count: 1637
  18. Qualifications to Enter Veterinary Medicine.

    A Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equal) degree is needed for entry to the Doctor of Veterinary Science program. Applicants must have shown achievement in the understanding of scientific material and must be able to quickly and effectively learn large amounts of material and solve problems. In order to see if the student has these qualifications they (College) will refer to the student's previous school records. The College will look for the quality and constant grades. For admission to the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine the student must have a full semester, which will include 5 courses (2.5 credits)

    • Word count: 1519
  19. Alternative Medicine, also called unconventional medicine, therapeutic practices, techniques, and beliefs that are outside the realm of mainstream Western health care

    Acupuncture is used for many ailments, including chronic pain, drug addiction, arthritis, chemotherapy-induced nausea, and mental illness. In the past 40 years acupuncture has become a well-known and widely available treatment in both developed and developing countries. There are 29 schools of acupuncture in the United States that are accredited or candidates for accreditation by the National Accreditation Commission for Schools and Colleges of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine. Many conventionally trained physicians take courses in acupuncture and incorporate it into their practices. Licensure or registration in acupuncture is available in 29 states plus the District of Columbia.

    • Word count: 1509
  20. The Psychodynamic Approach - or What Freud Really Thought

    During his training, Sigmund made friends with Josef Breuer, another physician and physiologist. They often discussed medical cases together, and it is through this that Sigmund first encountered hysteria. Breuer used the 'talking cure' on his patients, which involved hypnosis under which they talked about thoughts that were usually repressed, relieving their symptoms. Sigmund was fascinated by hysteria, and later went to Paris for further study under Jean-Martin Charcot, a neurologist renowned for his studies of hysterics and use of hypnosis.

    • Word count: 1164
  21. Latin Speech

    And how did the son react? Well all his dreams of getting into the best medical school were shattered. Instead he had to settle for a poor quality school for second rate doctors, and was left to explore the medical world on his own, learning from no basis more reliable than his own meandering experiences. And so, his life fell from high to low. For each failure he made he blamed his father. This son was afraid of the future. Very afraid. Let us take words form Master Yoda: "Fear leads to anger, anger leads to hate, hate leads to suffering."

    • Word count: 1001
  22. Narrative Medicine connotes a medicine practiced with narrative competence and marked with an understanding of the highly complex narrative situations among doctors, patients, colleagues, and the public

    How are illness and care depicted in various art forms? That is the narrative in medicine. Novels, poems, music (opera, pop music), paintings and films are fascinating sources for studying the story of the patient. Medical students to be better doctors if they indulge in novels about being ill? Are doctors a better look at real patients at the Department of Dermatology when they learned what they have to the skin of a naked woman on a Rembrandt painting to see? Narrative medicine is not only useful for training in medicine but will also benefit the patient.

    • Word count: 1752
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