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University Degree: Clinical Medicine

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  • Peer Reviewed essays 1
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  1. Peer reviewed

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    3 star(s)

    Jewish people of European descent are five times more likely to develop IBD than others that are part of the general population. IBD seems to be more common among city dwellers and occurs most frequently in developed countries, indicating that both genetic factors and environmental conditions, such as diet, may be involved in its development. Causes and symptoms of IBD The exact cause of IBD is unknown however it is thought that genetics play a significant role as twenty-five percent of people with IBD also have family members with the disease.

    • Word count: 1402
  2. Athletes Foot. Tinea pedis and tinea unguium arehigh prevalent cutaneous fungal infection in the general population and although these two conditions seem not to be so serious, they are highly infectious, chronic and therapeutically difficult.

    to athlete's foot infection, keeping the feet clean always by washing them at least twice a day and wearing clean socks always especially cotton fabric socks, and also changing them more often. Medically, antifungal treatment containing miconazole, clotrimazole, or tolnaftate up to two weeks after the infection has ceased to prevent re-occurrence. However, if the infection persists, stronger medications such as ketoconazole or terbinafine may be applicable. Due to frequent scratching, sometimes one might suffer from a bacterial infection and antibiotics are prescribed at this stage.

    • Word count: 1569
  3. One in every eight women will develop invasive breast cancer. Recently, breast cancer has been a hot topic in research. There have been studies reporting that estrogen and iron may play a role in the fight against the cancer.

    Young post-pubescent women in reproductive years are exposed to high systemic estrogen levels endocrinologically regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis (Prior, 2005). Menstruation, resulting from the detachment of the endometrial matrix prepared for egg fertilization, marks this age group. In the absence of fertilization, the matrix, mixed with blood, is shed monthly. This monthly blood loss commonly results in iron deficiency among women of this age group (Zimmermann et al, 2007). Therefore, the natural biological system in young women is high estrogen and low iron.

    • Word count: 2056
  4. Acanthamoeba is a microscopic protozoan free-living amoeba that can cause a rare, yet serious condition called acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Once past this fibrous membrane, the parasite binds itself to the mannose glycoprotein's within the corneal epithelium. After binding, the Acanthamoeba secretes proteins as well as proteases - enzymes that break down proteins and peptides; the proteins dissolve membranes of the cornea which facilitates further penetration. Once inside the cornea, the amoeba binds to the corneal surface and produces thinning and necrosis, killing most or all of the tissue. It then feeds off of the resident flora, or bacteria, naturally present in the eye along with the corneal cells themselves causing tissue damage and inflammation. The parasite enters the stroma of the cornea, resulting in swelling caused by an intensive polymorphonuclear response due to the disruption of the stromal lamellae.

    • Word count: 1343

    This death of an area of the heart muscle weakens the heart so it is unable to contract; this is known as myocardial infarction which is commonly referred to as a heart attack. The further narrowing of the lumen can be caused by thrombosis which usually occurs at the same place where atherosclerosis is forming. The endothelium of the arteries eventually breaks down and the blood comes in contact with the atheromas , causing the blood platelets to stick to the atheromas which may then form a thrombus which a blood clot.

    • Word count: 1723
  6. Laser safety. Due to an advance in technology and intelligence in the medical world, a number of better and more efficient treatments have been developed, and among these are the light based treatments that are now being used to treat a wide range of cli

    In order to minimize the risks of harm, a number of classes are specified. These classes are defined according to their power as well as their wavelength. Lasers can also be classified in relation to their ability to bring about biological damage (Ion, 2005) and thereby equip users on basic information on the safety of the lasers, and this information is also extremely useful in clinical settings to ensure careful operation. Laser treatment is the newest cosmetic surgery form that is used to treat skin.

    • Word count: 2297
  7. The development of tumour necrosis factor a (TNF-α) blocking biologics for the treatment of Crohns disease represents a major step forward in the ability to treat it. A variety of TNF-a antagonists have been used to inhibit TNF-α in patients

    Effects of TNF-? blockade in Crohn's Disease Several studies have implicated TNF-? as a key inflammatory mediator in the pathogenesis of CD. It has been reported that elevated serum levels of TNF-? correlate with clinical and laboratory indices of CD activity (2, 8, 9). TNF-? and two isoforms of TNF receptors p55 and p75 are either expressed on the membrane of monocytes and T lymphocytes or are circulating in the serum as soluble receptors. Anti-TNF-? antibodies and soluble TNF receptor-Ig fusion proteins can reduce inflammation by directly neutralizing the activity of TNF-?

    • Word count: 1899

    This may result in a loss of up to 25% of patients not returning for a second clinic attendance. Therefore, in recent years, it has become common practice to offer excision treatment at the first visit directly following the colposcopy (5). The two main conservative methods of treatment are ablative or excisional techniques. The cure rates for both techniques are in excess of 90%. The need for conservative treatment is apparent considering the morbidity of the more radical procedures, their effect on reproductive function and the high incidence of pre-cancerous lesions amongst younger age groups (8).

    • Word count: 6647
  9. Free essay

    Papanicolas test. Papanicolaou test (pap test, pap smear)[1]is a microscopic examination of cell taken from the cervix (the lower, narrow end of the uterus) to detect cancer,

    Women ages more than 65, who have at least 3 normal tests and no abnormal pap test in last three year, may stop having test. Women who have a hysterectomy (surgery to remove uterus and cervix) don't need to have pap test, unless this surgery is done for treatment pre-cancer or cancer. Conversely, women who have an increased risk of cervical cancer (like HIV infection or having mother that took the drug diethylstilbestrol (DES) during pregnancy) need more frequent screening, at least once a year.

    • Word count: 1196
  10. Euthanasia is unacceptable. Do you agree? Thesis statement: A lot of people think physicianassisted death or euthanasia should be an option available to a patient; however, others strongly believe that due to many reasons it must not be accepted by so

    Actually, euthanasia has a lot of names, and opponents and proponents call it differently. Nevertheless, from the medical point of view euthanasia is an act of ending life by injecting a special analgetic drug so that a person would die unpainfully. It is often used to relieve unendurable sufferings of a patient or in cases of terminal diseases. Nowadays this kind of dying is not practiced widely. Only Netherlands, Belgium and three states of the USA (Oregon, Washington and Montana)

    • Word count: 2843
  11. Iron Acquisition In Disease: Anything You Can Do I Can Do Better

    2010). Iron is not readily available in the human body for invading pathogens to use, with 70% of the total iron being contained in haem groups in haemoglobin (Hb). Most of the rest is either stored intracellularly in ferritin, or is bound to transferrin in the serum or is 'free' (Anzaldi, Skaar 2010, Nairz, Schroll et al. 2010). During infection, the immune system releases a range of proteins, mainly transferrin and lactoferrin, from neutrophils and tissues such as the kidney, which bind to any 'free iron,' and are then internalised by M2 macrophages, sequestering iron (Abrink, Larsson et al.

    • Word count: 1965
  12. Research proposal: Vitamin D, an antihypertensive agonist? The aim of this study therefore is to explore the effect of Vitamin D as an antihypertensive agonist. In addition, it would investigate any difference between supplemental vitamin D and dietary vi

    Does vitamin D have the same mechanism as antihypertensive medications on lowering blood pressure? 2. Is there a difference in the antihypertensive effects between the different sources of vitamin D (supplemental and dietary)? Hypotheses Several hypotheses emerge: 1st hypothesis: Vitamin D is expected to improve blood pressure maintenance in patients on antihypertensive 2nd hypothesis: Knowing that vitamin D availability is limited in dietary products, supplemental vitamin D is expected to be a better antihypertensive agonist than that from dietary intake.

    • Word count: 3716
  13. Platelets - Biology & Suitability for Transfusion

    This dissertation aims to look at the physiological importance of platelets, how they are prepared for transfusion, and also the difficulties experienced in this preparation and how they are, and may potentially be in the future, overcome. Platelets are anucleated cells/fragments, produced by megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, naturally having a discoid morphology with dimensions 3�m x 0.5 �m, expressing ABO antigens, human leukocyte antigen-I and human platelet antigens.[1,2] The normal range for platelets in the blood is 150x109-400x109/L, and each platelet survives in the blood for approximately 9.5 days.[3,4] The loss of endothelial integrity in a blood vessel exposes the collagen in the subendothelium, which expresses a ligand called the von Willebrand factor (vWF).

    • Word count: 2827
  14. Lower back pain in pregnancy. This study is therefore designed to determine the prevalence of low back pain in pregnant women, and also find out the predisposing factors and the impact of low back pain on daily living in pregnant women in Lagos.

    The anatomical origins of back pain in pregnancy vary and are difficult to determine and diagnose (Nilsson-Wikmar and Harms-Ringdahl, 1999). Women describe pain variously as occurring in the low back, sacral, posterior thigh and leg, pubic groin and hip areas. These may occur simultaneously or separately antenatally, during delivery or postnatally (Heiberg and Aarseth, 1997). Lockstadt (2000) stated that back pain in pregnancy usually presents itself most commonly in the following areas: sacroiliac joints at the posterior superior iliac spine (42%), the groin areas (53%), coccyx (33%), pubic symphysis anteriorly (77%), and occasionally other areas of the pelvic and upper legs.

    • Word count: 10808
  15. What is the evidence that endometriosis is a cause of subfertility?

    � Lymphatic or circulatory spread - The process is unknown but this helps to explain why these cells are found in other parts of the body which are far away from the endometrium. � Immune dysfunction - Many women with this condition have a lower immunity than normal women. � Environmental causes - It may be caused by exposure of certain toxins in the environment such as dioxins. The symptoms include painful and heavy periods, pain around pelvis area, pain when passing out urine and pain during sexual intercourse.

    • Word count: 1614
  16. A standard treatment option for Limited Small Cell Lung Cancer

    In terms of lung cancer, there are two different types. One is non-small cell lung cancer which is a group of lung cancers, the different forms being adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and differentiated and undifferentiated lung carcinoma. The non-small cell lung cancer is thought to develop from the foci of the dysplastic surface of the bronchial tree. (Cowell J.K., 2001). This type of lung cancer is not very likely to metastasise to other structures and parts of the body in the early stages.

    • Word count: 3194
  17. Traditional Medicine And Shamanism

    There even exists a law stipulating the distance from human settlement at which a pig farm may be located. Douglas (1966:30-48) presents religious, ethical and medical theories to try to explain Jewish abhorrence of pork. I would suggest, however that the approach to pork is more pragmatic than dogmatic, never having heard any reference to the eating of pork as being irreligious or unethical. Douglas'' reference (1966:31) to pharmacological research showing muscle extracts from pork to be toxic (which she dismisses as `medical materialism'') is, however, supportive of its status as a pollutant in traditional medicine. There exists within the mestizo community in Amazonia a widely-held belief in illnesses caused by `da�o'', `susto'' and `mal del aire''.

    • Word count: 2431
  18. The Position of Ethnic Minorities into Nursing and Midwifery NHS Workforce: Using a Systematic Review ApproachNHS Workforce:

    Evidence of research and policy based work programmes are used to explore the barriers associated that would signify the low numbers together with the testing and impact of any interventions. Evidence of information gathered suggest the NHS workforce does not reflect the profile of the community it serves and that position of ethnic minority staff has made little progress since 1960s in spite of race equality legislation. A few numbers of initiatives have been introduced by the government; this dissertation describes these as schemes that can work effectively at an operational level but lack of monitoring and a short time frame of their existence inhibit true measurement of their success.

    • Word count: 20158
  19. Reflection on radiographic practice. This paper will describe two incidents that I have experienced within the clinical environment, which I will then reflect upon utilising the Gibbs cycle.

    The request was read by a supervising trained radiographer, who deemed it to be an acceptable request. I was then supervised performing an 'anterior-posterior' and lateral projections on both wrists. The left wrist lateral projection had be to repeated as a true lateral projection had not been achieved. The repeat showed a hairline fracture which was not clearly visible with the initial lateral image. The right wrist was an undisplaced longitudal fracture of the distal radius. The images were 'red dotted' and the patient was returned to the casualty department for further treatment. Feelings - What were you thinking and feeling The patient was in pain but not unduly so.

    • Word count: 2427
  20. There continues to be a need for fluoroscopy, whether it is within the operating theatre or the interventional radiology suite. There are other imaging modalities that are capable of adequately performing the tasks that fluoroscopy is used for, however th

    The imaging modality of Fluoroscopy enables the health professional to investigate several different systems of the body, for example the; skeletal system; digestive system; respiratory system; and reproductive system. Specific areas can be isolated for examination such as bones; muscles; joints and organs i.e. the heart. This additional capability offered to the health care professional has led to fluoroscopy being used for several examinations and procedures including; cardiac catheterization, improved adequacies in imaging of joints; placements of catheters; intravenous pyelograms; hysterosalpingography; and also biopsies.

    • Word count: 2888
  21. Discuss the care of one patient from a participating placement area that demonstrates establishing a therapeutic relationship in the short term setting including advocacy, and the use of clinical science knowledge

    A customary handshake is an effective way to establish a professional but friendly relationship Nolan and Ellis (2008). After briefly discussing Mrs Moore's ailments, Mr Thomas confirmed the likelihood of an ulcer. He then explained the endoscopy procedure and provided general facts about the illness. He took time to address any uncertainties and was realistic but reassuring, stating that whilst a biopsy result may take 7days, a diagnosis could be made immediately afterwards. According to Ross and Wilson (2006) Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common ailment, which involves the full thickness of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The stomach produces a very strong acid which helps digest and break down food before it enters the small intestine (duodenum).

    • Word count: 3363
  22. Orphan drugs

    • Word count: 1458
  23. Embryonic Stem Cell Research

    Another concern revolves around whether or not embryos are being "killed" in order to remove the crucial stem cells. The proponents state that the medical benefits outweigh any side effects from tampering with the human embryonic stem cells and argue that the embryos are not yet humans; however, the opponents argue that these embryos should be recognized as human beings. The opponents also state that the "possible" advances do not overcome the ethics of "destroying" a human life and argue that there are simply too many medical risks associated with treatment using the stem cells derived from embryos (Monroe, Miller, & Tobis 2008).

    • Word count: 2578
  24. Smear essay

    3.1 What happened? Whilst on a busy family planning clinic placement, my mentor and I were seeing over ten clients in two hours. This young client reported of she had been called to the clinic to get treated for Chlamydia. She had a smear test a few weeks ago and some swabs were sent. Chlamydia is Caused by a bacteria: Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia is the most common Sexually Transmitted Infection seen in clinics Chlamydia can spread silently in men and women 50% of men and 80% of women who have this infection have no symptoms, � Signs in women

    • Word count: 1507

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Critically Evaluate the Role of Drugs in the Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders.

    "In conclusion to evaluating the role of drugs in the treatment of psychiatric disorders it would seem safe to say that their role is fairly big. However, the effectiveness of the drugs used does leave much to be desired. Their effectiveness may be actually down to disorder diagnosis (see appendix). There are concerns about side effects of which can be and are very serious. It has been noted that drug therapies are being caught up to by alternative therapies such as the cognitive approach. Yet alternative approaches may not be the answer, as with autism for example, (Davidson et al, 2004). However, it still is the case that until the availability of other treatment methods increase then drug treatments will continue to have a dominant role. Therefore, when the time comes that alternative methods are freely available the psychiatrist has to be seen to be doing something. Ultimately the answer will not lie in treatment effectives but rather in the causal factors of psychiatric disorders. Fiona Dyer 1"

  • "Smoking is the most preventable cause of ill health in Britain today" With reference to specific smoking related illnesses and ethical issues, discuss whether smokers should have the same access to the limited resources of the National Health Service.

    "In conclusion I believe that if it were found that smokers were a net burden on society, then it would be public right to put restrictions on smoking. But by the same reasoning any other activity, no matter how traditional, how honoured or how private, which was found to result in the danger of ill health significantly above average, would be equally open to control. Surely it is much more sensible to put extra money into anti smoking campaigns and measures to help people give up smoking. It has been shown that if a smoker believers they have a tobacco related illness they are much more likely to want to quit and have a greater interest in smoking cessation counselling 11, but this all relies on the facilities and support being available to them."

  • Discuss the fact that millions of people die each year in Africa from HIV and aids.

    "So in conclusion from all the information that can be seen, the affects that aids has on the African nation can have a major affect on how they live there lives, the lack of funding in the area is having a major affect of what is happening in the developing world. The lack of funding can lead to crime and even prostitution, which further spreads the disease in order for individuals to buy the life saving vaccines off the black market. The use of a vaccine is the first step in trying to combat the spread of the disease in both the developing and the developed world. Only time will tell if this will ever be affective and if funding in the developing world can be agreed to help the poverty stricken people of the world."

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