Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14

A critical incident report

Extracts from this essay...

Introduction

A Critical Incident Report. Report Summary and Rationale. The aim of this report is look at a critical incident that occurred in practice and relate this to the theory and knowledge regarding communication and interpersonal skills, that is to say, what skills were and were not used at the time of the incident. Carl Roger's necessary conditions for effective counseling, Heron's six category intervention and methods of non-verbal communication will all be examined. The incident that was chosen was so for the reasons that the situation made the student aware of inadequacies on her own part and those of the staff on the ward, which made her reflect upon the situation and how this could be learned from, so as not to make the same mistake again. Due to confidentiality, the patient concerned in this incident will be referred to under the pseudonym of "Mrs. Khan". The incident took place on an adult rehabilitation ward. Introduction. Communication is essential for effective nursing practice (Kacperek, 1997; Rowe, 1999). Communication occurs all of the time between people, not just verbally, but non-verbally too, by way of gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice and so on. Clear, effective and thoughtful communication is vital for health care professionals, who work with and care for other people (Burnard, 1992). Fielding (1995) argues that communication is the transmission of messages from one person to another. These messages contain information and the senders of these messages intend particular meanings to reach the receiver of the message, who will then attach a meaning to the message. The intended meaning may differ from the meaning attached to the message by the receiver.

Middle

Kalisch (1971, cited by Betts, 2002, in Kenworthy et al, 2002) describes empathy as: "the ability to sense the client's world as if it were your own, but without losing the as if quality". Empathy involves understanding the patient's world whilst staying in touch with your own world. Empathy is frequently perceived as the most significant element of the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002). The terms genuineness and congruence are used interchangeably and used to describe the helper always being real in the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002). Genuineness is important to the patient. When nurse's offer support it must be genuine, nurses cannot pretend to be interested, supportive and sympathetic (Burnard, 1992). The third condition vital for effective counseling according to Rogers (1967, cited by Betts, 2002, in Kenworthy et al, 2002) was unconditional positive regard. This can be defined as accepting and caring for the patient without any conditions in place, that is to say accepting the patient for what they are, as a whole, no matter what (Betts, 2002 in Kenworthy et al, 2002). As the student could not communicate verbally with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to use non-verbal communication (that is to say touch) to convey empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard. The student also attempted to use other methods of non-verbal communication in order to implement these vital components to her relationship with Mrs. Khan. During the times that the student sat with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to show she was listening to Mrs. Khan, even though the student did not understand Mrs.

Conclusion

especially for nurses (Rawlinson, 1990, cited in Rowe, 1999). Reflective practice and self-assessment, which is the aim of this report, is one way of becoming self-aware, with the ultimate aim of learning from the reflection and improving communication skills. Heron's six category intervention and Berne's transactional analysis are both effective ways of increasing self-awareness (Rowe, 1999). Conclusion. The UKCC Code of Professional Conduct states that the nurse should "...act at all times in such a manner as to safeguard and promote the interests of individual patients and clients" (UKCC, 1992). The nurses on the ward did not show their awareness of this clause whilst caring for Mrs. Khan. The nurses used their power over Mrs. Khan and placed in a position that caused her to feel hurt and vulnerable, therefore their approach did not promote the best interests of Mrs. Khan. They opted for the parent-child ego state of Berne's transactional analysis and the authoritative approach of Heron's six category intervention (Rowe, 1999). At the time of the incident student felt very inadequate. She felt that she was not a good advocate for Mrs. Khan, nor did she fulfill the clause of the UKCC's Code of Professional Conduct and act in her best interests (UKCC, 1992). The hardest part for the student was not being able to communicate verbally with Mrs. Khan. However, upon examining the literature regarding communication and interpersonal skills, she felt that she did help Mrs. Khan, if only in a small way. The invaluable use of non-verbal communication has now become clearer to the student. The student believes she has become more self-aware regarding her own non-verbal communication and hopes that in the future she will use her communication skills to become a better advocate for the patient in her care.

The above preview is unformatted text

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • Over 150,000 essays available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Over 180,000 student essays
  • Every subject and level covered
  • Thousands of essays marked by teachers

Related University Degree Nursing

  1. Gibb's Model of Communication - An Interaction

    This will ensure individual safe care and treatment is always delivered (Berry, 2006). When there is something in the way of a patient achieving a positive outcome they can easily become frustrated with occasional outbursts of anger. All this can be avoided by just being self aware and in touch with your patients.(Nursing Philosophy, 2006).

  2. Law and Ethics in Nursing. The aim of this assignment is to reflect ...

    supporting patients unable to help themselves, and also non-maleficence; not deliberately causing harm to patients and reducing risks that may cause harm' (Fry and Johnstone, 2002). Masters (2009) say that 'conflict can occur when a 'nurse may decide to act in a way that they believe is in the patients best interest rather than allowing patients to exercise their autonomy'.

  1. The importance of effective communication between doctors and nurses and its impact on patient ...

    (Department of Health, 2013) This quote was coined by the Department of Health in the aftermath of the Mid-Staffordshire report (Francis, 2013). Communication is one of the 6Cs, alongside care, compassion, competence, courage and commitment, which the government has used to reinforce the values and beliefs that should underpin all nursing care (Department of Health, 2013).

  2. Research and Study Skills: Interpersonal Skills to build a therapeutic relationship in mental health ...

    Gilburt, Rose and Slade (2008) reported about service usersâ experiences being sectioned under the Mental Health Act (2007). Clients mentioned lack of freedom and how this led some experiences feeling like they were being coerced. This often had a negative effect on therapeutic relationships being formed because it was perceived

  1. This assignment is based on a critical incident experienced by a student nurse while ...

    I was very impressed by the way Edward accepted criticisms from the Matron regarding record keeping and communication. Furthermore, I was also impressed by the way Edward involved all members of his staff in his decision-making. I was also astounded that Edward could come up with a comprehensive lecture for record keeping and communication so soon after the Matrons meeting.

  2. Reflect on an incident and explore and discuss research and theory with my understanding ...

    My colleagues had to keep finding him and leading him back to his bed. Time went by, and the afternoon staff took over. One staff nurse did the drug round, and he was trying to communicate to Mr Bloggs to eat his lunch, as he needed it for his medication.

  1. Nursing. In order to demonstrate the principles of safe, effective, appropriate and cost-efficient prescribing, ...

    Venous disease is the most common cause of leg ulcers. Identification of the risks of venous ulceration is important, as is optimal therapy, which requires control of abnormal venous physiology combined with adjunctive treatments to correct secondary skin ulceration, infection and lymphoedema (Donaldson, 2000).

  2. The Impact of Policy on Practice-analysis of a critical incident related to interprofessional delivery ...

    most types of faecal and urinary incontinence (NICE 2006; SIGN 2004: NICE 2006a). Much work is in progress and the Continence Promotion Service will assist in keeping healthcare professionals up-to-date with this or use its national and international contacts to seek information as necessary.

  • Over 180,000 essays
    written by students
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to write
    your own great essays

Marked by a teacher

This essay has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the essay.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the essay page.

Peer reviewed

This essay has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review under the essay preview on this page.