• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

A critical incident report

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A Critical Incident Report. Report Summary and Rationale. The aim of this report is look at a critical incident that occurred in practice and relate this to the theory and knowledge regarding communication and interpersonal skills, that is to say, what skills were and were not used at the time of the incident. Carl Roger's necessary conditions for effective counseling, Heron's six category intervention and methods of non-verbal communication will all be examined. The incident that was chosen was so for the reasons that the situation made the student aware of inadequacies on her own part and those of the staff on the ward, which made her reflect upon the situation and how this could be learned from, so as not to make the same mistake again. Due to confidentiality, the patient concerned in this incident will be referred to under the pseudonym of "Mrs. Khan". The incident took place on an adult rehabilitation ward. Introduction. Communication is essential for effective nursing practice (Kacperek, 1997; Rowe, 1999). Communication occurs all of the time between people, not just verbally, but non-verbally too, by way of gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice and so on. Clear, effective and thoughtful communication is vital for health care professionals, who work with and care for other people (Burnard, 1992). Fielding (1995) argues that communication is the transmission of messages from one person to another. These messages contain information and the senders of these messages intend particular meanings to reach the receiver of the message, who will then attach a meaning to the message. The intended meaning may differ from the meaning attached to the message by the receiver. ...read more.

Middle

Kalisch (1971, cited by Betts, 2002, in Kenworthy et al, 2002) describes empathy as: "the ability to sense the client's world as if it were your own, but without losing the as if quality". Empathy involves understanding the patient's world whilst staying in touch with your own world. Empathy is frequently perceived as the most significant element of the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002). The terms genuineness and congruence are used interchangeably and used to describe the helper always being real in the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002). Genuineness is important to the patient. When nurse's offer support it must be genuine, nurses cannot pretend to be interested, supportive and sympathetic (Burnard, 1992). The third condition vital for effective counseling according to Rogers (1967, cited by Betts, 2002, in Kenworthy et al, 2002) was unconditional positive regard. This can be defined as accepting and caring for the patient without any conditions in place, that is to say accepting the patient for what they are, as a whole, no matter what (Betts, 2002 in Kenworthy et al, 2002). As the student could not communicate verbally with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to use non-verbal communication (that is to say touch) to convey empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard. The student also attempted to use other methods of non-verbal communication in order to implement these vital components to her relationship with Mrs. Khan. During the times that the student sat with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to show she was listening to Mrs. Khan, even though the student did not understand Mrs. ...read more.

Conclusion

especially for nurses (Rawlinson, 1990, cited in Rowe, 1999). Reflective practice and self-assessment, which is the aim of this report, is one way of becoming self-aware, with the ultimate aim of learning from the reflection and improving communication skills. Heron's six category intervention and Berne's transactional analysis are both effective ways of increasing self-awareness (Rowe, 1999). Conclusion. The UKCC Code of Professional Conduct states that the nurse should "...act at all times in such a manner as to safeguard and promote the interests of individual patients and clients" (UKCC, 1992). The nurses on the ward did not show their awareness of this clause whilst caring for Mrs. Khan. The nurses used their power over Mrs. Khan and placed in a position that caused her to feel hurt and vulnerable, therefore their approach did not promote the best interests of Mrs. Khan. They opted for the parent-child ego state of Berne's transactional analysis and the authoritative approach of Heron's six category intervention (Rowe, 1999). At the time of the incident student felt very inadequate. She felt that she was not a good advocate for Mrs. Khan, nor did she fulfill the clause of the UKCC's Code of Professional Conduct and act in her best interests (UKCC, 1992). The hardest part for the student was not being able to communicate verbally with Mrs. Khan. However, upon examining the literature regarding communication and interpersonal skills, she felt that she did help Mrs. Khan, if only in a small way. The invaluable use of non-verbal communication has now become clearer to the student. The student believes she has become more self-aware regarding her own non-verbal communication and hopes that in the future she will use her communication skills to become a better advocate for the patient in her care. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Nursing section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Nursing essays

  1. Law and Ethics in Nursing. The aim of this assignment is to reflect ...

    supporting patients unable to help themselves, and also non-maleficence; not deliberately causing harm to patients and reducing risks that may cause harm' (Fry and Johnstone, 2002). Masters (2009) say that 'conflict can occur when a 'nurse may decide to act in a way that they believe is in the patients best interest rather than allowing patients to exercise their autonomy'.

  2. The reason for this essay is to reflect on a critical incident experience during ...

    On November 23rd, 2004. Carol was admitted to hospital for a right hip replacement surgery operation which she had successfully, the following day when we reported for duty, during handover the staff were informed that carol has developed DVT, which is the formation of a thrombus in a deep vein.

  1. This assignment is based on a critical incident experienced by a student nurse while ...

    Instead of being annoyed with Lucy Edward was supportive. According to Morris (2001); Manning and Curtis (2003) and O'Connor (1994) strategies that should be employed by the leaders and managers in the establishment of a motivational environment for staff should include: open acknowledgement of performances. Support and positive feedback that fosters a feeling of self-worth.

  2. The aim of this essay is identify the factors which may help or not ...

    Dottie's life would make difference in the way that nurses delivery her care. Against the NSF for Older People, Dottie hasn't been centred care and hasn't have been provided with services based in her needs. Probably, because they were so task-orientated, they could realized that a good assessment involves communication

  1. HOSPITAL CASE ANALYSIS. This case study takes place at a hospital and is based ...

    From this nurses learn what type of behavior or service is required by the various parties and gains a better understanding of how to deal with these people. This helps to solve the matter of bad human relations. Implementation: Using questionnaires, suggestion boxes, as well as requested evaluations by a

  2. The Impact of Policy on Practice-analysis of a critical incident related to interprofessional delivery ...

    attributed to specific training (Policy and continence care, Cornwall and Isle of Scilly NHS 2007). Clinical directorates follow guidelines to standardise practices across the Trust by making sure that staff, are fully competent in catheter treatment and healthcare as well as monitoring and producing audit documentation (NHS 2008). (NICE 2003)

  1. Gibb's Model of Communication - An Interaction

    This will ensure individual safe care and treatment is always delivered (Berry, 2006). When there is something in the way of a patient achieving a positive outcome they can easily become frustrated with occasional outbursts of anger. All this can be avoided by just being self aware and in touch with your patients.(Nursing Philosophy, 2006).

  2. Research and Study Skills: Interpersonal Skills to build a therapeutic relationship in mental health ...

    In contrast to the positive relationships describe Gilburt, Rose and Slade (2008) and Coatsworth-Puspoky, Forchuk & Ward-Griffin, 2006, clients stated that a dissatisfying relationship consisted of a power and control imbalance; coercion, mistrust, using medical terminology to label clients; being ignored and a focus only pathology of an illness (Gilburt, Rose and Slade, 2008;Coatsworth-Puspoky, Forchuk & Ward-Griffin, 2006).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work