• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

A critical incident report

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A Critical Incident Report. Report Summary and Rationale. The aim of this report is look at a critical incident that occurred in practice and relate this to the theory and knowledge regarding communication and interpersonal skills, that is to say, what skills were and were not used at the time of the incident. Carl Roger's necessary conditions for effective counseling, Heron's six category intervention and methods of non-verbal communication will all be examined. The incident that was chosen was so for the reasons that the situation made the student aware of inadequacies on her own part and those of the staff on the ward, which made her reflect upon the situation and how this could be learned from, so as not to make the same mistake again. Due to confidentiality, the patient concerned in this incident will be referred to under the pseudonym of "Mrs. Khan". The incident took place on an adult rehabilitation ward. Introduction. Communication is essential for effective nursing practice (Kacperek, 1997; Rowe, 1999). Communication occurs all of the time between people, not just verbally, but non-verbally too, by way of gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice and so on. Clear, effective and thoughtful communication is vital for health care professionals, who work with and care for other people (Burnard, 1992). Fielding (1995) argues that communication is the transmission of messages from one person to another. These messages contain information and the senders of these messages intend particular meanings to reach the receiver of the message, who will then attach a meaning to the message. The intended meaning may differ from the meaning attached to the message by the receiver. ...read more.

Middle

Kalisch (1971, cited by Betts, 2002, in Kenworthy et al, 2002) describes empathy as: "the ability to sense the client's world as if it were your own, but without losing the as if quality". Empathy involves understanding the patient's world whilst staying in touch with your own world. Empathy is frequently perceived as the most significant element of the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002). The terms genuineness and congruence are used interchangeably and used to describe the helper always being real in the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002). Genuineness is important to the patient. When nurse's offer support it must be genuine, nurses cannot pretend to be interested, supportive and sympathetic (Burnard, 1992). The third condition vital for effective counseling according to Rogers (1967, cited by Betts, 2002, in Kenworthy et al, 2002) was unconditional positive regard. This can be defined as accepting and caring for the patient without any conditions in place, that is to say accepting the patient for what they are, as a whole, no matter what (Betts, 2002 in Kenworthy et al, 2002). As the student could not communicate verbally with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to use non-verbal communication (that is to say touch) to convey empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard. The student also attempted to use other methods of non-verbal communication in order to implement these vital components to her relationship with Mrs. Khan. During the times that the student sat with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to show she was listening to Mrs. Khan, even though the student did not understand Mrs. ...read more.

Conclusion

especially for nurses (Rawlinson, 1990, cited in Rowe, 1999). Reflective practice and self-assessment, which is the aim of this report, is one way of becoming self-aware, with the ultimate aim of learning from the reflection and improving communication skills. Heron's six category intervention and Berne's transactional analysis are both effective ways of increasing self-awareness (Rowe, 1999). Conclusion. The UKCC Code of Professional Conduct states that the nurse should "...act at all times in such a manner as to safeguard and promote the interests of individual patients and clients" (UKCC, 1992). The nurses on the ward did not show their awareness of this clause whilst caring for Mrs. Khan. The nurses used their power over Mrs. Khan and placed in a position that caused her to feel hurt and vulnerable, therefore their approach did not promote the best interests of Mrs. Khan. They opted for the parent-child ego state of Berne's transactional analysis and the authoritative approach of Heron's six category intervention (Rowe, 1999). At the time of the incident student felt very inadequate. She felt that she was not a good advocate for Mrs. Khan, nor did she fulfill the clause of the UKCC's Code of Professional Conduct and act in her best interests (UKCC, 1992). The hardest part for the student was not being able to communicate verbally with Mrs. Khan. However, upon examining the literature regarding communication and interpersonal skills, she felt that she did help Mrs. Khan, if only in a small way. The invaluable use of non-verbal communication has now become clearer to the student. The student believes she has become more self-aware regarding her own non-verbal communication and hopes that in the future she will use her communication skills to become a better advocate for the patient in her care. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Nursing section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Nursing essays

  1. Reflect on an incident that took place whilst I was on my practice placement.

    The care given by the professional should have been based on therapeutics. Therapeutic care by healthcare professionals should focus solely on the client (Lyttle & Mathias 2000). Therefore, even though the profession of Carols support worker was not from the nursing field, I think that she would still have been

  2. The Impact of Policy on Practice-analysis of a critical incident related to interprofessional delivery ...

    Care providers could be accused of institutionalised ageism, perhaps reflecting discrimination against older people in wider society. Nurses are part of society and it is likely that unless nurses are made aware of the impact of such attitudes, discrimination could affect personal nursing practice.

  1. Informing and Evaluating Professional Practice , Critical review

    Management of Social Transformations (MOST 2003) states that the research should be carried out in full compliance with, and awareness of, local customs, standards, laws and regulations moreover, the research should be conducted in a competent fashion, as an objective scientific project and without bias. These articles appear to be reliable and valid as they are both published in peer review journals.

  2. Law and Ethics in Nursing. The aim of this assignment is to reflect ...

    form their own sound ethical beliefs, that can withstand questioning and be used as reasoning in ethical decision making (Allmark, 2005). Beauchamp & Childress (2001) developed four principles which is a principle based approached to ethical decision making. The four principles by Beauchamp and Childress are: justice, autonomy, beneficence and non maleficence.

  1. The reason for this essay is to reflect on a critical incident experience during ...

    " One may also reflect on practice while one is on the midst of it. This process involves both reflections in action and reflection in practice (Johns and Freshwater 1998). Schon states that reflection in action consists of on the spot surfacing, criticising, restructuring and testing of intuitive understanding of experience phenomenence (Schon 1983)

  2. The aim of this essay is identify the factors which may help or not ...

    Frail older people are vulnerable and services for them should be designed in accordance with their needs (DH, 2001). If she has had an appropriate assessment since the first day of her admission, the nurses in charge of her care could pick up her needs for discharge.

  1. A critical appraisal of LevettJones, T., Lathlean, J., Higgins, I. and MCMillan, M. (2009) ...

    purpose of the study and were conversant in the type of information the study wished to glean, how this information would be used and what the implications may be for them as contributors to the study. The participants were advised they could withdraw at any time, the process was anonymous and pseudonyms were used.

  2. The importance of effective communication between doctors and nurses and its impact on patient ...

    As a student nurse, I consider ward round to be an excellent inter-professional learning opportunity. In my experience, this is one of the rare occasions when the medical and the nursing team, physiotherapists, pharmacists, nursing and medical student are confined to one area and expected to collaborate jointly.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work