• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

A critical incident report

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

A Critical Incident Report. Report Summary and Rationale. The aim of this report is look at a critical incident that occurred in practice and relate this to the theory and knowledge regarding communication and interpersonal skills, that is to say, what skills were and were not used at the time of the incident. Carl Roger's necessary conditions for effective counseling, Heron's six category intervention and methods of non-verbal communication will all be examined. The incident that was chosen was so for the reasons that the situation made the student aware of inadequacies on her own part and those of the staff on the ward, which made her reflect upon the situation and how this could be learned from, so as not to make the same mistake again. Due to confidentiality, the patient concerned in this incident will be referred to under the pseudonym of "Mrs. Khan". The incident took place on an adult rehabilitation ward. Introduction. Communication is essential for effective nursing practice (Kacperek, 1997; Rowe, 1999). Communication occurs all of the time between people, not just verbally, but non-verbally too, by way of gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice and so on. Clear, effective and thoughtful communication is vital for health care professionals, who work with and care for other people (Burnard, 1992). Fielding (1995) argues that communication is the transmission of messages from one person to another. These messages contain information and the senders of these messages intend particular meanings to reach the receiver of the message, who will then attach a meaning to the message. The intended meaning may differ from the meaning attached to the message by the receiver. ...read more.

Middle

Kalisch (1971, cited by Betts, 2002, in Kenworthy et al, 2002) describes empathy as: "the ability to sense the client's world as if it were your own, but without losing the as if quality". Empathy involves understanding the patient's world whilst staying in touch with your own world. Empathy is frequently perceived as the most significant element of the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002). The terms genuineness and congruence are used interchangeably and used to describe the helper always being real in the helping relationship (Betts, 2002, cited in Kenworthy et al, 2002). Genuineness is important to the patient. When nurse's offer support it must be genuine, nurses cannot pretend to be interested, supportive and sympathetic (Burnard, 1992). The third condition vital for effective counseling according to Rogers (1967, cited by Betts, 2002, in Kenworthy et al, 2002) was unconditional positive regard. This can be defined as accepting and caring for the patient without any conditions in place, that is to say accepting the patient for what they are, as a whole, no matter what (Betts, 2002 in Kenworthy et al, 2002). As the student could not communicate verbally with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to use non-verbal communication (that is to say touch) to convey empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard. The student also attempted to use other methods of non-verbal communication in order to implement these vital components to her relationship with Mrs. Khan. During the times that the student sat with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to show she was listening to Mrs. Khan, even though the student did not understand Mrs. ...read more.

Conclusion

especially for nurses (Rawlinson, 1990, cited in Rowe, 1999). Reflective practice and self-assessment, which is the aim of this report, is one way of becoming self-aware, with the ultimate aim of learning from the reflection and improving communication skills. Heron's six category intervention and Berne's transactional analysis are both effective ways of increasing self-awareness (Rowe, 1999). Conclusion. The UKCC Code of Professional Conduct states that the nurse should "...act at all times in such a manner as to safeguard and promote the interests of individual patients and clients" (UKCC, 1992). The nurses on the ward did not show their awareness of this clause whilst caring for Mrs. Khan. The nurses used their power over Mrs. Khan and placed in a position that caused her to feel hurt and vulnerable, therefore their approach did not promote the best interests of Mrs. Khan. They opted for the parent-child ego state of Berne's transactional analysis and the authoritative approach of Heron's six category intervention (Rowe, 1999). At the time of the incident student felt very inadequate. She felt that she was not a good advocate for Mrs. Khan, nor did she fulfill the clause of the UKCC's Code of Professional Conduct and act in her best interests (UKCC, 1992). The hardest part for the student was not being able to communicate verbally with Mrs. Khan. However, upon examining the literature regarding communication and interpersonal skills, she felt that she did help Mrs. Khan, if only in a small way. The invaluable use of non-verbal communication has now become clearer to the student. The student believes she has become more self-aware regarding her own non-verbal communication and hopes that in the future she will use her communication skills to become a better advocate for the patient in her care. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Nursing section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Nursing essays

  1. Law and Ethics in Nursing. The aim of this assignment is to reflect ...

    supporting patients unable to help themselves, and also non-maleficence; not deliberately causing harm to patients and reducing risks that may cause harm' (Fry and Johnstone, 2002). Masters (2009) say that 'conflict can occur when a 'nurse may decide to act in a way that they believe is in the patients best interest rather than allowing patients to exercise their autonomy'.

  2. This assignment is based on a critical incident experienced by a student nurse while ...

    Evaluation Writing this reflection has made me aware why Quinn et al (1990); Covey (1992); Arnold and Boggs (2003) suggested communication skills to be the most important skill for today's managers. Throughout the shift Edward was able to motivate and influence his staff only through excellent communication skills and a democratic leadership style.

  1. Reflect on an incident that took place whilst I was on my practice placement.

    (Tschudin 1994) Nevertheless, as a result of my conscience, I decided to briefly mention the incident to a registered nurse, who appeared quite concerned by my findings. She offered me rational advice, but did not appear to point me in the right direction I felt that this advice was not appropriate in respect of the incident.

  2. Nursing. In order to demonstrate the principles of safe, effective, appropriate and cost-efficient prescribing, ...

    Within the local trust, guidelines suggest that if the patient is not showing signs of clinical infection such as pyrexia, friable, bleeding granulation tissue or cellulitis, antibiotics are not indicated. Furthermore, routine swabbing is not recommended as this is thought to be neither helpful nor cost-effective (Gilchrist, 2002).

  1. This communication report will support the idea that with a little understanding of ...

    Whilst approaching Hugh I had decided not to use open questions and to use closed questions in a clear and friendly manner using restricted amounts of language. I simply asked Hugh if the other patient looked upset. He looked over said no and reinforced this with a shake of his head.

  2. HOSPITAL CASE ANALYSIS. This case study takes place at a hospital and is based ...

    After a period of time, specified by the heads, the nurse-group can switch to another task-group. > Self-directing work teams What problem(s) does it solve? I. Bad human relation II. Lack of teamwork Aimed at solving the problem of Lack of team work, this part of the action plan will

  1. Gibb's Model of Communication - An Interaction

    This will ensure individual safe care and treatment is always delivered (Berry, 2006). When there is something in the way of a patient achieving a positive outcome they can easily become frustrated with occasional outbursts of anger. All this can be avoided by just being self aware and in touch with your patients.(Nursing Philosophy, 2006).

  2. The importance of effective communication between doctors and nurses and its impact on patient ...

    Zwarenstein and Bryant (2000) define collaboration as nurses and doctors working together and sharing patients? care responsibility. They claim that for collaboration to be successful, decision making has to be joint (Zwarenstein and Bryant, 2000). However, Barnsteiner et al. (2007)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work