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"The arts deal in the particular, the individual and the personal while the sciences deal in the general, the universal and the collective." To what extent does this statement obscure the nature of both areas of knowledge?

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Introduction

Anna Tichonova AIS Vienna 01.07.2004 Word count: ..... 8. "The arts deal in the particular, the individual and the personal while the sciences deal in the general, the universal and the collective." To what extent does this statement obscure the nature of both areas of knowledge? "All men by nature desire knowledge".1 Metaphysics talks about the fact that the basis of knowledge comes from human manner to enjoy its senses. Feeling is the form of knowledge, which is given to us by nature, since it also exists in animals.2 However, in animals it is linked to direct benefit, while in humans it can simply be related to pleasure, which can be named "aesthetic". Aesthetic delight, which is reached through sensation, is no longer animal instinct, but primal knowledge, which contains the roots of both art and science. Both artistic and scientific knowledge come from accumulation and generalization of experience, which result from memory, a collection of impressions. Aristotle was also able to show that any art as well as science much contain at least a small portion of knowledge obtained through experimentation. In the beginning art and science arouse out of the same group, but as the European culture began to give a special position to the artists, art and science began to separate and stated having very different social functions. ...read more.

Middle

There are many examples when artists were interested in science and technology, while scientists were inspired by arts. There have been remarkable parallels between the movements in art and the development in science. An example of such is the unity of space and time in relativity and the Cubist series of temporal views across space. At the same time, Albert Einstein was inspired by Fyodor Dostoevsky, claming that "Dostoevsky gives [him] more than any scientist, more than Gauss".3 In philosophy, the relationship between science and art is examined within the theory of knowledge called: gnosiology. In the past century, there was constant fight between the two theories: scientism and anti-scientism.4 From the scientism point of view, science has the highest cultural value. Anti-scientism points out that science limit us in the solution of human problems. It shows science as the antagonistic force that takes away from the freedom of will and creative individuality. One cannot observe the world merely through science, since the truth is also intuitive. Thus, in the opinion of Italian philosopher B. Croce5, science and art are the two stages of knowledge. The First stage is intuitive knowledge, which is achieved through imagination. An example of this is art. The second stage is the knowledge achieved through logic; the initial tool for which is intellect. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, when considering art as a whole, a universal picture of the world is created. The difference is merely between the methods in which we receive the knowledge. While observing art, one gains knowledge from emotional experience, while in science, logical is used to explain an occurrence. Even though art is often individually oriented, the creations of art have an enormous value for humanity as a whole. Art is universal and general, even though the aesthetical concept of beauty depends on time and place. Art is able to accumulating experience which was collected for centuries. Scientific knowledge, on the other hand, is usually obtained through scientific methods, which are seen as authentic. However, science on its own is not able explain the world, since it often fails to consider human factors. Art represents the intuitive stage of knowledge, while science consists of logical thinking. The intuitive method can also be used in science, while an art masterpiece can be a result of scientific research, such as Leonardo Da Vinci's Human Proportions-Vitruvian Man.7 Knowledge which is obtained with the help of science, and knowledge, obtained with the help of art is fundamentally different and fulfills different tasks and goal, yet the combination of art and science provides complete human knowledge and can, therefore, be considered universal. B. Croce, states that art and science are closely related and function together. ...read more.

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