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Business OPEC

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Introduction

Factors and processes affecting employee motivation in an organisation All individuals work for a reason. These reasons could vary from person to person. Some of them could apply to all workers, such as the need to earn money. However, some reasons have more importance to certain individuals as compared to others. Employees have needs; needs that have to be satisfied by the employer in order to get the maximum effort out of his workers. If their needs are not satisfied, then they will not be "motivated" to work. Motivation refers to the willingness of an individual to work. In the short run, lack of motivation can lead to lack of commitment and reduced efforts on behalf of the employees. Several theories have been presented by logicians addressing the factors that affect the motivation levels of different individuals. We will be evaluating the effectiveness of these theories below. Frederick W. Taylor set out a theory of scientific management. He believed workers were being inefficient by adopting their own methods of working and that the employers were not aware of what motivated their employees. He attempted to bridge the gap between the managers and the employees with his theory. He carried out several experiments in which he observed workers and timed their method of operation. He then isolated the one that took the least time and was most efficient. Employees were then trained to follow that method alone and all the employers had to do was supervise them to make sure they were doing the tasks in the set time period and were abiding by the method that they had been trained for. ...read more.

Middle

However, it can also be an esteem need as having money is a status symbol as well. Therefore, this theory of motivation might not be as effective. Taylor's theory had seemed quite feasible to most industries at the first glance and thus came the introduction of the Hawthorne studies. Elton Mayo initially started conducting experiments on the basis of Taylor's theory of scientific management - workers' productivity is affected by financial motivators. However, he discovered that changing the working conditions in whichever way and even bringing those back to the original ones had the same effect on productivity. This was known as the Hawthorne Effect. Elton Mayo then concluded that changes in financial factors as well as working conditions had little or no effect on employee motivation. It was the cohesion and communication amongst the employees and their peers as well as the interest shown by the employers' in their work that motivated them to work together and hence increase productivity. This is why Elton Mayo supported the human relations theory where he stated that in order for employees to be motivated and to work effectively, it is essential that they gain 'personal satisfaction'. On the employer's behalf, this can be achieved by communicating with informal work groups and making sure that the employees' objectives coincide with their own. Generally, people tend to be highly motivated to perform a certain task when they have had a certain say in the decision-making process as well. ...read more.

Conclusion

This keeps him motivated. On the other hand, job enlargement involves giving an employee more work to do of a similar nature. For example, one of my friends works at a bicycle industry. Instead of just putting the wheels on the bicycles, which is what he usually does, he is allowed to put the entire product together. Apart from financial benefits, workers can be motivated through fringe benefits as well. These are payments other than wages or salaries. They can include private medical insurance, expense accounts, company cars, bonus schemes etc. Providing fringe benefits is actually cheaper at times to employers. Even employees might prefer to receive benefits rather than pay. Despite their benefits, they can even cause status problems. Overall, there are plenty of motivation theories given by different logicians. All of them provide their own form of evidence to support their claims. Therefore, keeping everything in view, we can safely state that non-financial motivators have a higher level of success as compared to financial motivators. They have their own place and may remove negative motivation but they might not encourage workers to increase productivity. On the other hand non-financial motivators play a bigger role in employee motivation. They help employees to adjust to working conditions and produce the optimum output by reaching their full potential. All the motivation theories have certain limitations which have been stated in their evaluation. Therefore, employers need to understand that motivation is a key factor to satisfied employees and increased productivity and thus they must concentrate their efforts greatly on the motivation levels of their workforce. ...read more.

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