• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss the human nervous system, with reference to its structure, function and information flow.

Extracts from this document...


Discuss the Human Nervous System, with Reference to its Structure, Function and Information Flow By Mitali Roy There is a relationship between the structure of the human nervous system, its function and its information flow. The human nervous system is structured and is the most complex system in the body. It is composed of cells arranged in networks and circuits to process information. (Purves et al, 2001) It consists of the brain, spinal cord and the peripheral nerves and these are organised to detect changes in the external and the internal environments, process these changes and then to make the appropriate response to it. (Adds et al, 2000) The brain and spinal cord are part of the central nervous system (CNS) and their job is to integrate sensory information from various receptors and to give an appropriate response to it. (Toole et al, 1991) Paired nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system and they connect the brain and spinal cord to the tissues and organs of the body, especially to the sensory organs of the body. They can either come directly from the brain and so are called cranial nerves or from the spinal chord and are called the spinal nerves. (Toole et al, 1991) The peripheral nervous system can be split into the afferent and efferent nervous system. ...read more.


As the diameter of the axon increases the conduction velocity of the nerve impulses also increases, but when an axon becomes myelinated the conduction velocity of an impulse is faster than a non-myelinated axon of the same diameter. So therefore a reaction to the information happens a lot faster. (Adds et al, 2000) The following is a section of an axon and the myelin sheath formed by Schwann cells (Adds et all, 2000) For information to pass to the brain or to the spinal cord it has to be passed in the form of nerve impulses through the neurone. The function of the axon aids the information flow. A nerve impulse involves the movement of ions through the axon membrane. When a nerve impulse is taking place sodium ions are moving into the axon and potassium ions are moving out. When a neurone does not conduct an impulse it is at resting state and the inside of the axon has a negative electrical charge. (Adds et al, 2000) When positively charged sodium ions enter the inside becomes depolarised and an action potential is generated, then the potassium ions move out making the inside of the axon negatively charged again and so therefore restoring the resting potential. (Toole et al, 1991) The ion pumps and channels in the axons cause the resting and action potentials when information is passed through. ...read more.


(Adds et al, 2000) The midbrain's job is to conduct impulses between hindbrain and midbrain. It contains centres associated with visual and auditory reflex actions. (Toole et al, 1991) The cerebellum works with the cerebrum and helps coordinate movement of skeletal muscles and maintenance of balance and body posture. (Purves et al, 2001) The medulla oblongata has nerve fibres between the brain and spinal cord, it controls the rate and force of the heartbeat. It also controls the rate and depth of breathing and the diameter of blood vessels. It also controls reflexes such as sneezing and coughing. (Purves et al, 2001) The function of the spinal cord is linked with the medulla oblongata and is made of a central area of grey matter and external layer of white matter. In the centre of the spinal cord there is the central canal with the cerebrospinal fluid. (Adds et al, 2000) The grey matter has cell bodies of nerve cells and transmits impulses to the skeletal muscle and to the unmyelinated connector neurones. Whereas the white matter has nerve fibres which conduct impulses to and from the brain. (Toole et al, 1991) In conclusion there is a relationship between the structure of the human nervous system, its function and information flow. The human nervous system is a very complex system and a lot of things are occurring in the different departments to make it work and the things described in this essay are just some of the things going on. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level ICT in Business section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level ICT in Business essays


    Competitors, government, customers and other stakeholders have to be considered by Tesco's public relations so that Tesco holds a cordial relationship with the public. The strategical managers seriously deal with outside issues because they are so sensitive to the company's future growth.

  2. Explain the functions of the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS) (including ...

    information and sends signals to the muscles involved in voluntary movements, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) which controls the automatic muscle control, i.e. the viscera. The ANS is itself co-ordinated by the hypothalamus and limbic system, and can be again divided into two branches, the sympathetic branch and the parasympathetic branch.


    Neurons transmit nerve messages. Glial cells are in direct contact with neurons and often surround them. The neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system. Humans have about 100 billion neurons in their brain alone! While variable in size and shape, all neurons have three parts.

  2. How the Nervous system the endocrine system and the brain interact in the body.

    There are two major types of hormones the amino and the steroid. The brain is divided into three main structures; the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain. The Hindbrain consist of three divisions; the pons, the cerebellum, and the medulla.

  1. Free essay

    Managing information

    Examples of formal communicating are the following: * Board meetings * Team briefings * E-mail * Memos * Letters Informal communication Takes place outside the official channels of Sainsbury's. An example of informal communication is gossip. MORE EXPENSIVE video conferencing Television Meetings Interviews Phone calls Faxes Gossip E-mail Letters Memos

  2. The Entourage System: A Feasibility Study

    and as such, it is important to ensure this cost is considered. A total per year of approximately �50k will need to be allocated to employ an administrator and maintain components. An analysis of the price of the yearly subscription to the site has been done and is included in Appendix 2.

  1. Management information system (MIS).

    As it involves all people from other departments i.e. Finance, purchasing, manufacturing, information system is important for it enables everyone to be connected to each other in order to have an effective implementation. D] Control - The companies need a certain control system to make sure that its marketing plans implemented are going to be achieved.

  2. The function for Cadbury Schweppes.

    are to be offered o to whom (the target market), and o how (how to inform potential customers of the offering, how to make the transaction, etc.) * Products are created through production efforts. * Capital and operating funds are managed and tracked in the accounting-finance area.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work