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In this article I will represent the importance of information in the management.

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Table of Contents Table of Contents 1 Table of Figure 2 Section 1 3 Introduction 3 Section 2 4 What is data? 4 What is information? 4 Data Vs Information 4 Information for Decision Making 5 Information in Operational system 7 Definition 7 Operational information characteristics 7 Characteristic of Information in Transaction processing system (TPS) 8 Information in Knowledge Management 9 What is Knowledge Management? 9 Characteristic of Information in knowledge work systems (KWS) 9 Information in Tactical decision management 10 Definition 10 Characteristic of Information in Management Information System 10 Information in Strategic decision management 11 Definition 11 Strategic information characteristics 11 Characteristic of Information in Executive Support System (ESS) 11 Production of more information in each of these areas is worthwhile. 12 Section 3 14 Conclusion 14 Bibliography 15 Table of Figure Figure 1 ---Information Concepts 4 Figure 2 --- A Model of Management 5 Figure 3 ---Different kinds of information systems at the various organization levels support different types of decisions. 6 Figure 4--- Information for Decision Making 7 Figure 5 --- A symbolic representation for a payroll TPS 8 Figure 6 --- How management information systems obtain their data from the organization's TPS 10 Figure 7 --- Model of a typical executive support system. 12 Figure 8 --- Information Source and Presentation 13 Section 1 Introduction In the last few years we have been witnessing one of the most important events in human history thus far ---- the information revolution. ...read more.


Let's look an example of system to see how information in the TPS. This is a figure that how a payroll system work. Figure 5 --- A symbolic representation for a payroll TPS (Laudon & Laudon, 2000) We can see the data in the payroll master file is all the basic information of every employee. Those are all only data, all pre-specified. Like most of TPSs, the input information is transactions or events. Then during the processing, the system does something like sorting, listing, merging, or updating the information that inputted. In this case Payroll system did this job. After processing, the system usually output the information like, detailed reports, lists or summaries. That can help the supervisors (first-line manager) to conduct of the business. Information in Knowledge Management What is Knowledge Management? The next level of information systems is aimed to support knowledge and data workers in organizations. Laudon & Laudon (2000) define knowledge workers as people in organizations, who work with creating new information and who integrate this new information to form knowledge. In contrast, they define data workers as people in organizations whose work is to use and manipulate data, which already exist within the organization. Knowledge workers use knowledge work systems (KWS), whereas data workers use office automation systems (OAS). KWSs are utilized by domain experts when modeling data or performing simulations, whereas OASs concentrate on performing office specific tasks, such as document management or report creation. ...read more.


So we can not say that more information is better for decision. Only useful information for different level can make the system effective. This is a table of the characters of Information Source and Presentation in different level system. Figure 8 --- Information Source and Presentation (Liao, http://www.im.ncnu.edu.tw/~dyliao/MIS_2.ppt) So if we put the consolidated information in operational level, it will not help first-line manager to make decision. Opposite, the useless information will waste time and make the system less effective. Section 3 Conclusion As I discussed above, the information has become the most important element in the each level of organization. It help manger to make decision from day-to-day to 5-years operation plan. But in each level of organization, the characters of information are different. The information in the lowest level, operational-level-system, is a low level of consolidation and from internal data. But in the strategic-level-system, most of information are used both internal and external sources. Concerning the type of transactions performed, Operational level transactions are typically static as they concern predefined and simple operations, such as checking a stock amount or retrieving an order (Chaudhuri & Dayal, 1996). In contrast, transactions performed at the strategic level are often dynamic and of a more ad-hoc nature. Though the characters of information are different, they are all important for manager to make decision. So in the 21st century, your organization will become blind, if without information. ...read more.

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