• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Islamic terrorism is a serious problem for the United States because of the threat to national security, innocent civilians, and the foundations of democratic societies throughout the world.International terrorism has changed in structure

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Terrorism, as defined by Title 22 of the United States code, section 2656f(d), is the "pre-meditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence and audience." Islamic terrorism is a serious problem for the United States because of the threat to national security, innocent civilians, and the foundations of democratic societies throughout the world.International terrorism has changed in structure and design over the centuries. Jewish zealots conducted campaigns against the Romans in the first century AD, and the Hashshashin, a Shi'ah Muslim group who gave us the word assassin, systematically murdered those in positions and leadership during the 19th century. The modern age of terrorism began in the 1960's. International terrorism in its current form began in 1968. As the 1970's passed by, the explosion of extremist groups and related incidents sparked a new awareness of the dangers of terrorism. In the 1980's, Canada was the victim of several terrorist attacks carried out by Armenian and Sikh extremists, including a bombing of an Air India flight originating in Toronto, which exploded off the coast of Ireland, killing 329 people. The Islamic radical movements main success has been their ability to gain legitimacy from the general public. During the past two decades, they have had enormous success with their ability to present themselves to the Arab and Muslim world as the true bearers of Islam. They appeal to the lower class due to the shared resentment of wealthy westerners while the middle class and intellectuals are drawn toward these radical groups in order to expel imported ideologies and forms of government. ...read more.

Middle

The Hizballah has tried to accomplish these goals through the use of terrorism, of which 704 attacks were committed from 1991 - 1995. The scope and nature of Hizballah's terrorist campaign reflect its close dependency on Iranian support for both the ideological and financial levers. Iran donates vast amounts of money to Hizballah, which among other things funds the movement's health and education services.The funds received from Iran in the 1980's totaled $60-$80 million a year. Throughout researching these groups, once case involving a Saudi Arabian National, Usama Bin Laden, exemplifies the difficulties with prosecuting terrorists in the International Court of Justice. Whether domestic or international in nature, terrorism is having an ever-increasing impact upon the international community. The United States has fallen victim to acts of terrorism recently, most notably the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, OK, and the 1998 bombings of U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. Upon investigation, it was revealed that the embassy bombings were linked to Usama Bin Laden, a former Saudi Arabian National whose excessive bank accounts fund a worldwide terrorist operation. Further investigation revealed that Bin Laden was living in Afghanistan in a camp protected by his own 200-man private army and a sub-unit of the Taliban, a quasi-religious organization operating within Afghanistan's borders. The United States, backed by other nations who have had terrorist attacks related to Bin Laden, appealed to the United Nations Security Council to call for the extradition of Usama Bin Laden for trial. In response to the request, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted resolution 1267 on October 15, 1999. ...read more.

Conclusion

The second question is who has jurisdiction over Bin Laden. This question was also interesting in that it called into question who should be responsible for trying Bin Laden if he is brought up for trial. Since the bombings in question took place in Kenya and Tanzania, the committee thought that they would have had first opportunity to try him. However, the fact that these bombings took place at United States Embassies meant that the US also had jurisdiction. This fact, although unimportant in the end, was largely ignored after brought up briefly in the beginning of the session. Another question affecting the jurisdiction issue was the question of whether or not the Taliban was the de facto government of Afghanistan. The fact that the Afghan representatives were not from the Taliban clouded this issue amidst questions of command, control, and recognition. Additionally, the fact that there is no clear information regarding whether or not Kenya and Tanzania had given up their right to try Bin Laden left the committee with questions regarding who had jurisdiction over the case if it was ever brought forth. Finally, the fact that most of the justices agreed that there was insufficient information to determine whether all other measures were taken first was troublesome. There will be no resolution to this problem in the near future; meanwhile the gap between the Western world and the Arab nations will continue to grow. Constant monitoring, careful planning, and the preservation of the International Court of Justice are our only means of prevention, or deterrence, against terrorism. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level UK, European & Global Economics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level UK, European & Global Economics essays

  1. A study of Patent system in India in the light of Patent Cooperation Treaty.

    The International Search Authority contains a list of documents which helps the inventors to know various prior art present in other countries. And this all happen only by filing one application, it's really an amazing phenomena. Another advantage of PCT filing is that the inventor can file an International Application

  2. Is the United Nations a success or failure?

    For instance, where the LON had no army of it's own, the UN hoped to have armed forces permanently at it's disposal, but infact it has never had the armed forces at its disposal that it wanted. (Number 1 failure).

  1. 'Anarchy is what states make of it' (A Wendt) Do you agree?

    International law can over-rule the established power of sovereignty, because although sovereigns have the right to be free of any power's interference of their own domestic affairs, if the international

  2. Critically discuss the role and importance of international commercial arbitration as an alternative dispute ...

    was not harmed by any deficiency in the product, should the court rule otherwise, then the liability rests with the supplier, and the seller must be compensated. www.adr.org In that manner, the entire disputes and ultimate liability is resolved in one hearing.

  1. Explain the evolution and characteristics of the debt problems of LDCs. In the light ...

    The pattern of trade between Latin America and Europe and North America had remained since independence, and as Sub-Saharan African countries gained independence, a similar pattern emerged. The fact that LDCs were exporters of agricultural and mineral products while net importers of manufactured products left them vulnerable, not only because

  2. By the mid nineteenth century, Britain had been the world's strongest economic power for ...

    "Entrenched institutional structures - in industrial relations, enterprise and market organisation, education, finance, international trade, and state-enterprise relations - constrained the transformation of Britain's productive system".32 Britain was also severely at a disadvantage with her rivals with regards to her trading policies.

  1. This article review is done for the course of Trends in Global Marketing Strategies. ...

    The article ends with a part in which Porter discuss about the role of the leadership. He says that today's competitive realities demand leadership. According to the author, leaders believe in change; they energize their organizations to innovate continuously; they recognize the importance of their home country as integral to their competitive success and work to upgrade it.

  2. Worldwide Human Security

    These terms are quite ambiguous, and don't provide much guidance in describing each category (i.e. Similarities between "Protection of Civilians" and "Public Safety", "Peace Support Operations" and "Conflict Prevention"). Furthermore, they are quick to point out instances where they took "Concrete Action" but are reluctant to define specific threats to which they will respond.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work