• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

A study to investigate whether Lincoln is a clone town

Extracts from this document...


Identifying the question I was interested in comparing urban areas and therefore decided to investigate whether Lincoln is a clone town which means whether it is very similar to other cities. I then conducted an investigation in Lincoln to answer the question - 'Is there an association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement?' I then used the results to prove and disprove my hypotheses which are: Null Hypothesis - There is no association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement. Alternative hypothesis - There is an association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement While doing this investigation we had to bear in mind the risks involved. These are outlined below: > Tripping over - the chance of this happening is quite high but the injury sustained would be minor. > Being hit by a car - chances of this happening are relatively low but injuries sustained could be severe and even result in death. > Getting lost - the chances of this happening were very low as I had a map and already knew my way around. Developing a strategy The first thing I did when planning my investigation was come up with a question which I could go on to answer. ...read more.


Working E = sum of row x sum of column � number Observed frequency - expected frequency Observed - expected� Observed - expected� � expected Shop Shrewsbury Telford Lincoln Total Independent 321 35 100 456 P Chain 152 103 111 366 Q Total 473 A 138 B 211 C 822 AxP - 473 x 456 � 822 = 262.3941606 = 262.39 AxQ - 473 x 366 � 822 = 210.6058394 = 210.61 BxP - 138 x 465 � 822 = 78.06569343 = 78.07 BxQ - 138 x 366 � 822 = 61.44525547 = 61.45 CxP - 211 x 456 � 822 = 117.0510949 = 117.05 CxQ - 211 x 366 � 822 = 93.948990511 = 93.95 Degrees of freedom = (number rows - 1) x (number columns - 1) (2-1) x (3-1) = 1 x 2 = 2 degrees of freedom Df 0.10 0.05 0.01 0.001 2 4.60 5.99 9.21 13.82 My total of 85.61 is outside my degrees of freedom. This means I will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that there is an association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement. Clone town test 5 points for each type of shop counted, 22 x 5 = 110 50 points for each independent shop, 100 x 5 = 5000 5 points for each chain store = 111 x 5 = 555 110 + 5000 + 555 = 5665 / � 211 (total shops) ...read more.


We can see that clothing and other have the most shops. Other has a wider gap with 30 independently owned and 18 chain, however, clothing has a much smaller gap with 20 independent and 27 chain. There are much fewer of the shops such as electronics/IT and travel agents. There is also a difference in gaps with travel agents having 1 independent and 1 chain, however, electronics/IT has 0 independent and 8 chain. Presenting a summary In this investigation I found out that Lincoln is a clone to border town. A clone town is a town where the high street or other major shopping areas are significantly dominated by chain stores. I also found, by using the chi squared test, that there is an association in Lincoln between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement. If I was doing this investigation again I might expand it by looking for clusters of chain stores in certain areas and doing a nearest neighbour experiment. I might also look at a larger area and split in into more areas. I would also be more careful with the choices of whether it is a chain store as people have different opinions on what can be classed as a chain store and how many there have to be of the shop before it stops being independent. Overall I think this investigation went rather well and I was happy with my results. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Population & Settlement section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Population & Settlement essays

  1. Microclimates.My purpose of this study is to establish whether my hypotheses are true or ...

    Generally temperatures peak at night in urban areas, this is because dust and cloud act as a blanket to reduce radiation, in addition, buildings emit most of their stored up heat at night. The further away from urbanised areas temperatures decrease and reach a minimum in the countryside.

  2. Free essay

    Carlisle Fieldwork Write Up

    How our methods of data collection could have been improved: We could have taken more surveys around different places around the city centre to obtain more reliable results. We could have noted down what age groups the passer bys were.

  1. Land Use Studies Town and country planning

    land be unavoidable, the local planning authority should ensure that it is used to its full potential and not wastefully.) * promoting mixed use of land to fully utilise the land and countryside surrounding urban areas. This would also have the effect of diversifying land use and thus economic, social

  2. Discover whether there is a hierarchy in Leicestershire.

    also second floor businesses, however these businesses are mostly things like solicitors, where people do not window shop but gain information by 'word and mouth' or leaflets/yellow pages. > I will also note the chain-stores, for example WHS. This is to find out which types of settlements contain the larger shops which need many people to support it.

  1. Locality and Hapiness: A Study of Quality of Life

    This will make sure that my statistical information is up to date to help me get good accurate results that will help me get the best marks possible for this coursework. Average cost of housing in Upminster, Barking and Whitechapel No.

  2. Part of the 'WhenI'm 64' investigation.

    If the whole world took up this policy, the population would slow down rapidly which from the world's point of view may well be what is needed. STATEMENT 7: Each year, increasing numbers of people are killed in hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, and landslides.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work