• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

A study to investigate whether Lincoln is a clone town

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Identifying the question I was interested in comparing urban areas and therefore decided to investigate whether Lincoln is a clone town which means whether it is very similar to other cities. I then conducted an investigation in Lincoln to answer the question - 'Is there an association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement?' I then used the results to prove and disprove my hypotheses which are: Null Hypothesis - There is no association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement. Alternative hypothesis - There is an association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement While doing this investigation we had to bear in mind the risks involved. These are outlined below: > Tripping over - the chance of this happening is quite high but the injury sustained would be minor. > Being hit by a car - chances of this happening are relatively low but injuries sustained could be severe and even result in death. > Getting lost - the chances of this happening were very low as I had a map and already knew my way around. Developing a strategy The first thing I did when planning my investigation was come up with a question which I could go on to answer. ...read more.

Middle

Working E = sum of row x sum of column � number Observed frequency - expected frequency Observed - expected� Observed - expected� � expected Shop Shrewsbury Telford Lincoln Total Independent 321 35 100 456 P Chain 152 103 111 366 Q Total 473 A 138 B 211 C 822 AxP - 473 x 456 � 822 = 262.3941606 = 262.39 AxQ - 473 x 366 � 822 = 210.6058394 = 210.61 BxP - 138 x 465 � 822 = 78.06569343 = 78.07 BxQ - 138 x 366 � 822 = 61.44525547 = 61.45 CxP - 211 x 456 � 822 = 117.0510949 = 117.05 CxQ - 211 x 366 � 822 = 93.948990511 = 93.95 Degrees of freedom = (number rows - 1) x (number columns - 1) (2-1) x (3-1) = 1 x 2 = 2 degrees of freedom Df 0.10 0.05 0.01 0.001 2 4.60 5.99 9.21 13.82 My total of 85.61 is outside my degrees of freedom. This means I will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis that there is an association between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement. Clone town test 5 points for each type of shop counted, 22 x 5 = 110 50 points for each independent shop, 100 x 5 = 5000 5 points for each chain store = 111 x 5 = 555 110 + 5000 + 555 = 5665 / � 211 (total shops) ...read more.

Conclusion

We can see that clothing and other have the most shops. Other has a wider gap with 30 independently owned and 18 chain, however, clothing has a much smaller gap with 20 independent and 27 chain. There are much fewer of the shops such as electronics/IT and travel agents. There is also a difference in gaps with travel agents having 1 independent and 1 chain, however, electronics/IT has 0 independent and 8 chain. Presenting a summary In this investigation I found out that Lincoln is a clone to border town. A clone town is a town where the high street or other major shopping areas are significantly dominated by chain stores. I also found, by using the chi squared test, that there is an association in Lincoln between the ownership of retail outlets and the type of settlement. If I was doing this investigation again I might expand it by looking for clusters of chain stores in certain areas and doing a nearest neighbour experiment. I might also look at a larger area and split in into more areas. I would also be more careful with the choices of whether it is a chain store as people have different opinions on what can be classed as a chain store and how many there have to be of the shop before it stops being independent. Overall I think this investigation went rather well and I was happy with my results. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Population & Settlement section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Population & Settlement essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Urban microclimate investigation.

    4 star(s)

    The straighter roads in other directions go into other urban areas. Due to limited time twelve sample points were chosen, this number was chosen as data could be recorded at all these points within the time limit and there are enough of them do to statistical analysis's on, such as spearman's rank co-efficient.

  2. Free essay

    Carlisle Fieldwork Write Up

    How our methods of data collection could have been improved: We could have taken more surveys around different places around the city centre to obtain more reliable results. We could have noted down what age groups the passer bys were.

  1. Land Use Studies Town and country planning

    land be unavoidable, the local planning authority should ensure that it is used to its full potential and not wastefully.) * promoting mixed use of land to fully utilise the land and countryside surrounding urban areas. This would also have the effect of diversifying land use and thus economic, social

  2. Discover whether there is a hierarchy in Leicestershire.

    When I have conducted the investigation I will make a spreadsheet which will also contain the populations of the settlements that I have studied. These websites that I use to obtain the information are: www.leics.gov.uk/wards_parishes_published.xls www.leics.gov.uk/index/your_council/about_leicestershire/statistics/research_info_population/parish_profiles.htm When collating the data it is to be recognised that this is done as

  1. Locality and Hapiness: A Study of Quality of Life

    Questions Average 1 How would you rate the level of education in your local area? 3.8 2 How would you rate the level of education in your local area? 3.3 3 How would you rate the local shops in your area?

  2. Microclimates.My purpose of this study is to establish whether my hypotheses are true or ...

    Cities contains a lot of concrete structures like streets and buildings, which soak up sunlight during the day. At night, they release this heat, which warms urban areas several degrees Celsius above nearby rural areas. This phenomenon is known as the urban heat island effect.

  1. Part of the 'WhenI'm 64' investigation.

    This statement is not only bad for the people themselves; it is also bad for the community. When these things happen, not only does it destroy lives, it destroys property as well. But events like this only have a small death toll, and only in the very major cases have a larger one that is significant.

  2. Retail Centres Investigation

    shopping centres and will allow me to plot maps and draw graphs to illustrate the differences in certain shopping hierarchies. I will also collect leaflets, particularly about the Harlequin centre, to get a clearer idea of the services and goods it provides.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work