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Suggest & explain why, within a country, crude birth rate varies over time

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Introduction

Geography Assessment Fertility and Mortality 1. Suggest & explain why, within a country, crude birth rate varies over time. Use named examples and evidence to support your answer. In the 19th century most countries had a very high birth rate. Since then different countries birth rate has changed and this is mainly because the government implement different polices towards their population. One set of polices is a pro-natal view and this encourages the population to have children and fertility is promoted. One reason for increasing fertility is to compensate for wartime losses for example France in 1918 after the First World War. Germany additionally applied a pro natal strategy to promote Nazi Germany as they wanted to encourage a particular race in pursuit of racially motivated polices. Also, in Japan they want to preserve the labor force from an ageing population and recently they have seen a rise in the birth rate for the first time in six years. Governments have also applied two types of Anti-natal policies to their country and these can be either voluntary or coercive. Voluntary polices include spreading information about family planning clinics with funding form the World Health Organization. ...read more.

Middle

This means that the more children a woman has then there is greater chance of survival for one of them to grow up till adult level. This is generally because of the lack of medical care available in LEDC's where as in a MEDC there is easy access to medical attention. Most babies' die of malnutrition or malaria and these are both easy dealt with in an MEDC however it is much more difficult in a place such as Kenya. In MEDC's there is lower birth rate because women's role society has changed over time. In present day a lot of women are going through higher education onto university and ready to start careers before settling down. This leads to having children later when they are older which to there 'fertility window' being limited or not at all. Women's role in society is also linked very closely to children becoming economic burdens. Couples cannot afford having a lot of children as it is too expensive leading to smaller families with fewer children. However, the difference between LEDC and MEDC birth rates are becoming more alike. Since 2000 the total fertility rate in LEDC's are dramatically decreasing. ...read more.

Conclusion

Food has become more widely available with reliable with application of fertilisers, pesticides and agro-chemicals. In MEDC's the land area required to grow crops has decreased substantially yet the yield outputs have increased also intensive farming methods have been introduced such as the green revolution in the EU. Also, medical care in MEDC's is of a higher standard compared to LEDC's. More and more vaccinations are being introduced in MEDC's to prevent diseases and this also helps to lower the infant mortality as well as the death rate. People in MEDC's also have a higher life expectancy which lowers the death rate as people are living for longer. Disease control shows the development and access to medication. If there is good access to medical care then there is a low number of population per doctor. Somewhere such as the UK with 300 pop per doc has a better access to medical care than Ethiopia with a pop per doc of 32 499! Advances in medical technology have also helped reduce the death rate such as keyhole surgery and antibiotics. Also, some countries have a National Health Service such as the UK this means that any medical attention is free. Many LEDC's do not have this and a lot of the population cannot afford doctors which therefore mean there is a greater risk of dying from curable diseases. ...read more.

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