• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

'The Making of Modern Russia', 1856-1964.

Extracts from this document...


Thursday, 3rd October 2003 Jad Salfiti A2 History Coursework: Unit 5c 'The Making of Modern Russia', 1856-1964 a) To what extent do these sources agree that Russian government policy on agriculture consistently failed and that peasants resisted it under both Tsarist and Communist rule? Source1 concerns the emancipation statute of 1861. Western historian Ronald Hingley cites the introduction of redemption payments "serfs resented receiving too little land for their needs" this undermines the fundamental aims of the policy. Source 1 makes reference to how the Mir was in charge of paying the redemption payments for the whole village. Hingley points out that "individual peasants were bound in various ways to their village communes"; peasants were detained in their villages until the payments were received. Hingley notes the creation of Special Courts delegated to discipline unruly peasants "the flogging of recalcitrant peasants" this is evidence of peasant rebellion, mainly due to the fact they were in a poorer position after emancipation than they were before the policy was introduced. Source 1 suggests agricultural policies were a failure, and provoked peasant uprising, due to the hope the emancipation edict gave peasants of being free. ...read more.


Stolypin's reforms were based on good principles that could have revitalized agriculture in Russia. This does suggest that this reform did bring some success, but the general consensus confirms that many peasants preferred social security resulting in the failure of the policy. Source 3 is an excerpt from a meeting between Churchill and Stalin during the Second World War. We se Stalin's personal view regarding the collective farm policy, it is thus a subjective piece of evidence. Stalin implies suggests that the collective farm policy was a failure; he refers to the policy as "a terrible struggle". Stalin insinuates peasant resistance against the policy, stating some kulaks were "wiped out by their labourers" the resistance was a product of peasant reluctance to work on collectivised farms. The farms provided little reward or incentive to the actual peasants growing the grain resulting in the dramatic deterioration of the quality and quantity of the grain. Source 3 ends with an important comment that food supply had been "vastly increased" this indicates policy victory. However modern evidence undermines Stalin's statement, STATISTIC more and more people were dying of famine during the period of collectivization. ...read more.


In Source 4 it is suggested that the policy could have been a triumph had it not been for "stupid decisions" which weighed down many successes. These "ill-conceived strategies" included lack of coherence between the crops and the terrain, and deficiency of storage place for the grain, consequently the "crops rotted in the fields". Source 5 reinforces the feeling that the scheme was a failure, as the agricultural output during the seven year plan only increased by 14%, the target for 1965 was 170, only 114 was achieved. Source 6 also argued that Khrushchev's policy was for the most part unsuccessful. However the failure is blamed on Khrushchev's inheritance of "a generation of neglect". The reliability of some sources must be taken into consideration. Some sources suggest subjectivity and bias such as Sources 3 and 4. Policies such as Stolypin's land reforms and Khrushchev's Virgin Land Schemes are shown to have limited success, but ultimately they both failed to reach targets required. By and large, all the sources do converge in the belief that most of the agricultural policies did fail consistently to a degree. Similarly there is evidence that it was resisted by Peasantry both under Tsarist and Communist rule. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Production - Location & Change section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Production - Location & Change essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Scott Report and the Making of the Modern Countryside - 'How penetrating was ...

    5 star(s)

    It seems that the report is littered with emotive language at this point as to convey its message, "worse allowed to 'tumble down' almost entirely to grass"v. Official Statistics such as comparisons between agricultural prices and general prices are merely not contained.

  2. The Role and Importance of Agriculture In the Carribean. Organisations involved in its ...

    This cause organic fertilizers to be bulky, making it more expensive to transport and difficult to apply. * It may contain disease causing organism and/or weed seeds. Inorganic fertilizers These are inorganic salts containing elements required for plant growth manufactured from natural material or synthetic materials.

  1. To what extent do the sources agree that Russian Government Policy on agriculture consistently ...

    Source 5 proclaimes that the total agricultural output of 1962 droped from 107 to 99 by 1963, which corresponds with Source 6 'The 1963 and 1965 grain harvests were badly affected by adverse weather'. Source 5 disagrees with source 6 that in 1965 grain harvets were bad, as the total

  2. The Carajas Project

    Even the industries within and around the Carajas area have benefited. Because of the building of the Tucarui dam which produces Hydro Electric Power, they are provided with cheap electricity.

  1. To what extent did the 'collective' farms of Eastern Europe work?

    On latter inspections the strategy that Kadar implemented seems full proof. Even if the middle peasants refused to join governmental orientated cooperatives, they were encouraged to form their own, which many evidently did. The outcome of Kadar's reformed collectivisation policy was astounding.

  2. To what extent do the sources agree that the Russian government's policy on agriculture ...

    It also points out that the scheme had ill conceived strategies which cancelled out many successes. There was breakdown of machinery and many worked themselves ragged but failed to gather a gigantic harvest. The crops they collected however were rotting in fields as there was a lack of storage.

  1. To what extent do the sources agree that Russian government policy on agriculture consistently ...

    It can also be argued that the account is accurate when Source 5 is compared. The records show a small success, the total agricultural output was expected to reach 170% in 1965 however only came to 114%. This illustrates that while they did not reach their targets output was improving

  2. Communist Russia under Stalin, 1928 - 1939.

    An efficient agricultural sector was also necessary so that fewer workers would be needed on the farms. Rapid industrialisation could only take place if more workers transferred from the rural countryside to work in the factories and industries. Rapid industrialisation would also achieve two political results.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work